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ExOR: Opportunistic Multi-Hop Routing for Wireless Networks

By Sanjit Biswas and Robert Morris


This paper describes ExOR, an integrated routing and MAC protocol that increases the throughput of large unicast transfers in multi-hop wireless networks. ExOR chooses each hop of a packet’s route after the transmission for that hop, so that the choice can reflect which intermediate nodes actually received the transmission. This deferred choice gives each transmission multiple opportunities to make progress. As a result ExOR can use long radio links with high loss rates, which would be avoided by traditional routing. ExOR increases a connection’s throughput while using no more network capacity than traditional routing. ExOR’s design faces the following challenges. The nodes that receive each packet must agree on their identities and choose one forwarder. The agreement protocol must have low overhead, but must also be robust enough that it rarely forwards a packet zero times or more than once. Finally, ExOR must choose the forwarder with the lowest remaining cost to the ultimate destination. Measurements of an implementation on a 38-node 802.11b test-bed show that ExOR increases throughput for most node pairs when compared with traditional routing. For pairs between which traditional routing uses one or two hops, ExOR’s robust acknowledgments prevent unnecessary retransmissions, increasing throughput by nearly 35%. For more distant pairs, ExOR takes advantage of the choice of forwarders to provide throughput gains of a factor of two to four

Topics: mesh, 802.11
Year: 2005
OAI identifier: oai:CiteSeerX.psu:
Provided by: CiteSeerX
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