Nonphotorealistic rendering (NPR) can help make comprehensible but simple pictures of complicated objects by employing an economy of line. But current nonphotorealistic rendering is primarily a batch process. This paper presents a real-time nonphotorealistic renderer that deliberately trades accuracy and detail for speed. Our renderer uses a method for determining visible lines and surfaces which is a modification of Appel’s hidden-line algorithm, with improvements which are based on the topology of singular maps of a surface into the plane. The method we describe for determining visibility has the potential to be used in any NPR system that requires a description of visible lines or surfaces in the scene. The major contribution of this paper is thus to describe a tool which can significantly improve the performance of these systems. We demonstrate the system with several nonphotorealistic rendering styles, all of which operate on complex models at interactive frame rates
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