(NCTM) Standards (1989, 2000) has been that all students can succeed in complex mathematics. This tenet is commonly referred to as the equity principle, and while it is acknowledged that students do not need to be treated in the same way, the NCTM Standards and other influential policy documents (e.g., Measuring What Counts, National Academy of Sciences, 1993) nonetheless advocate that all children should have access to a coherent, challenging mathematics curriculum. Since the early 1990s, some critics have been understandably skeptical of this principle, particularly given the NCTM Standards’ considerable emphasis on conceptual understanding, problem solving, and constructivist pedagogy (Harris & Graham, 1996; Woodward & Montague, 2002). Some of the more widely cited studies of equity in the mathematics literature have focused on low-income, ethnicall
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