for Biomedical Applications. (Under the direction of Prof. Gianluca Lazzi.) Miniature antennas are necessary to reduce the size of communications and biomed-ical devices, specifically for a retinal prosthesis. A comparison of two dimensional and three dimensional antennas are presented as an attempt to miniaturize and reduce the antenna footprint size while enhancing antenna characteristics such as bandwidth, maximum gain and the radiation pattern. This work explores various two dimensional antennas and converts them into three dimensional implementations by folding and rotating the dipole arms. This changes the current vector alignment which can en-hance the antenna characteristics. Further comparison between the 2D and 3D antennas are investigated in a trans-mitter/reciever system. The 2D and 3D antennas are tested and compared in air and inside eye phantoms to replicate the communications link of a retinal prosthesis system. To accurately model the vitreous humor of the eye, methods to mimic the electrical properties of a biological medium are also investigated. This work demon-strates the feasibility of three dimensional wire antennas for the application of a retinal prosthesis. Three dimensional wire antennas are ideal due to their smaller planar size, wider bandwidth and coupling characteristics in comparison to the two dimensional implementation
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