Bridging the gap between model-based design and platformbased implementation is one of the critical challenges for embedded software systems. In the context of embedded control systems that interact with an environment, a variety of errors due to quantization, delays, and scheduling policies may generate executable code that does not faithfully implement the model-based design. In this paper, we show that the performance gap between the model-level semantics of proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controllers and their implementation-level semantics can be rigorously quantified if the controller implementation is executed on a predictable time-triggered architecture. Our technical approach uses lifting techniques for periodic, time-varying linear systems in order to compute the exact error between the model semantics and the execution semantics. Explicitly computing the impact of the implementation on overall system performance allows us to compare and partially order different implementations with various scheduling or timing characteristics. Categories and Subject Descriptors C.3 [Computer Systems Organization]: Special-purpose and Application-based Systems—Real-time and embedded systems
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