In &quot;Understanding the nature of learning: issues and research directions &quot;  R.S. Michalski is concerned with programs that seek to construct representations of some reality. He notes: The representations can be in the form of symbolic descriptions, algorithms, simulation models, control procedures, plans, images, or general formal theories. If one stretches the concept of representation to include physical or physiological imprints occurring in the nervous system when one is acquiring a skill, the above view of learning seems also to cover skill acquisition
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