Abstract—Electron beam lithography (EBL) patterning of poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) is a versatile tool for defining molecular structures on the sub-10-nm scale. We demonstrate lithographic resolution to about 5 nm using a cold-development technique. Liftoff of sub-10-nm Au nanoparticles and metal lines proves that cold development completely clears the PMMA residue on the exposed areas. Molecular liftoff is performed to pattern DNA rafts with high fidelity at linewidths of about 100 nm. High-resolution EBL and molecular liftoff can be applied to pattern Creutz–Taube molecules on the scale of a few nanometers for quantum-dot cellular automata. Index Terms—Au nanoparticles, DNA tiling, electron beam lithography (EBL), liftoff, metal grains, molecular electronics, nanofabrication, quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA)
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