The quartz crystal (XTAL) oscillator is one of the last components in electronic systems that has yet to be integrated. Consequently, integrating crystal oscillators (XOs) has become a research target for the developers of MEMS microresonators. Recent and representative examples of MEMS oscillators include  and . Unfortunately, MEMS microresonators introduce certain challenges including limited power-handling capability . The limitations of MEMS have resulted in recent work, e.g.,  and , exploring the limits of compensated CMOS oscillators as an alternative solution. The advent of RF CMOS circuits and associated advances in CMOS process technology have enabled the development of low-noise integrated LC oscillators (LCOs) , which are suitable for replacing XOs in USB applications . This work demonstrates a self-referenced CMOS LCO, or CMOS harmonic oscillator (CHO), that exhibits 90ppm total frequency error ove
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