Abstract—The aim of this paper is to explore the possibility of using geo-referenced satellite or aerial images to augment an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) navigation system in case of GPS failure. A vision based navigation system which combines inertial sensors, visual odometer and registration of a UAV on-board video to a given aerial images has been developed and tested on real flight-test data. The experimental results show that it is possible to extract useful position information from aerial imagery even when the UAV is flying at low altitude. It is shown that such information can be used by the UAV system in an automated way to compensate the drift of the navigation solution which occurs when only inertia
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