The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of various evaluation techniques that should be considered for assessing disease management (DM) program effectiveness. Each design has a particular suitability, depending on the type of DM program and the outcome variables measured. In all cases however, threats to validity must be controlled for or the accuracy of the results may be called into question. Of particular concern, is the current use of utilization measures as the focus of the intervention and cost as the outcome measure. To mitigate the effects of this potential measurement bias, utilization variables should be used as the outcome measure and a transformation made to financial performance. This document should provide DM program planners the tools necessary for choosing the evaluation method that is most appropriate for assessing effectiveness in improving health outcomes and reducing morbidity of the population
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