Abstract — The paper concerns the radiographic nondestructive testing of well-manufactured objects. The detection of anomalies is addressed from the statistical point of view as a binary hypothesis testing problem with nonlinear nuisance parameters. A new simple and numerically stable detection scheme is proposed as an alternative to the conventional generalized likelihood ratio test which becomes untractable in the non-linear case. This original decision rule detects the anomalies with a loss of a negligible part of optimality with respect to an optimal test designed for the “closest ” hypothesis testing problem with linear nuisance parameters. The inspection of nuclear fuel rods is discussed to illustrate the relevance of the proposed theoretical solution. Index Terms — Anomaly detection, Parametric tomography, Statistical hypotheses testing, Nuisance parameter, Nondestructive testing
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