The proboscis extension response conditioning protocol has been used to explore olfactory-based associative learning in an array of insects. We have monitored a different feeding reflex, which involves activation of the cibarial pump, to demonstrate olfactory learning in the moth Manduca sexta. In the first experiment, four different treatment conditions were used to assess associative (Pavlovian) learning. The results indicate that an excitatory cibarial pump response develops and is retained for at least 24 h only when odor is forward-paired with the presentation of sucrose. Three control treatments, backward pairing, air (no odor) pairing and random pairing, failed to increase the cibarial pump response. However, an excitatory cibarial pump response developed when the backward- and air-paired groups receive
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