Abstract — This paper presents two-dimensional (2-D) finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulations of low-loss rightangle waveguide bends, T-junctions and crossings, based on high index-contrast waveguides. Such structures are essential for the dense integration of optical components. Excellent performance characteristics are obtained by designing the waveguide intersection regions as low- resonant cavities with certain symmetries and small radiation loss. A simple analysis, based on coupled mode theory in time, is used to explain the operation principles and agrees qualitatively with the numerical results. Index Terms — Finite difference time domain (FDTD) methods, integrated optics, optical waveguide components, resonators, waveguide bends. I
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