A typical tailor-welded blank (TWB) is composed of several base metals, which might have di!erent mechanical properties as well as thickness. Moreover, a TWB contains a heat-a!ected zone (HAZ) which has quite di!erent mechanical properties from base materials. The forming behaviors of TWBs have been widely studied since they were &quot;rst developed as a way of using collectible o!al. They are often modeled by shell elements assuming the midsurfaces are in the same plane. Base materials are tied together along the weld lines so that the HAZ is neglected. In this paper, various &quot;nite element models for TWB including HAZ are presented. An appropriate model based on the considerations of accuracy and computing e$ciency is suggested. Free-bend test (three-point bend test), stretch-bend test (OSU formability test) and limit dome height (LDH) test are performed to verify the proposed numerical modeling technique for TWBs. � 200
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