Article 8(j) of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) implicitly recognizes that valuable understanding for the sustainable use and regeneration of natural systems resides in practices of societies rooted in local cultures and ecosystems. In compliance with the CBD, the Global Environmental Facility (GEF) has provided funds for establishing project interventions for in situ conservation of the diversity of native plants and their wild relatives in centers of origin of agriculture. This chapter examines the experience of one such project, called the In Situ Project, in the central Andes of Peru (2001–05) to explore the relationship among knowledge systems, the scaling up of project interventions, and environmental governance. The project’s stated objective is to conserve agrobiodiversity in the cultivated fields (chacras) of campesino farmers in fifty-two locations in Peru. The project addresses six areas of intervention: (1) the chacra and its surrounding areas, (2) the social organization of in situ conservation, (3) raising awareness of the importance of maintaining the diversity of native plants and wild relatives, (4) policies and legislation to promote in situ conservation, (5) markets for agrobiodiversity, and (6) an information system for monitoring agrobiodiversity. The execution of the first three components has been contracted out to six implementing agencies, including two government research organizations and four nongovernmental organizations. Among the latter is Proyecto Andino de Tecnologia
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