Several recent studies have identified alleles at the baboon Mhc-DQA and Mhc-DQB loci (Gyllensten and Erlich 1989; Kenter et al 1992; Mwenda et al 1997). These loci show the high levels of polymorphism that typify the class II loci in many taxa (Bontrop 1994; Kenter et al 1992). However, all of the baboon major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II alleles reported to date have been isolated from laboratory animals or cell lines. This has left unresolved the question of whether levels of polymorphism at these loci are high within any single wild or captive baboon population. The current study reports 13 DQA1 alleles found in two study populations of baboons, one wild and outbred and the other captive and inbred. The wild population consists of 11 social groups of yellow baboons (Papio cynocephalus) in Amboseli National Park, Kenya (Samuels and Altmann 1991). The captive population consists of a single social group of guinea baboon
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