Nonuniformity is a common characteristic of contemporary computer systems, mainly because of physical distances in computer designs. In large multiprocessors, the access to shared memory is often nonuniform, and may vary as much as ten times for some nonuniform memory access (NUMA) architectures, depending on if the memory is close to the requesting processor or not. Much research has been devoted to optimizing such systems. This thesis identifies another important property of computer designs, nonuniform communication architecture (NUCA). High-end hardware-coherent machines built from a few large nodes or from chip multiprocessors, are typical NUCA systems that have a lower penalty for reading recently written data from a neighbor’s cache than from a remote cache. The first part of the thesis identifies node affinity as an important property for scalable general-purpose locks. Several software-based hierarchical lock implementations that exploit NUCAs are presented and investigated. This type of lock is shown to be almost twice as fas
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