Most current peer-to-peer lookup schemes keepa small amount of routing state per node, typically logarithmic in the number of overlay nodes. This de-sign assumes that routing information at each member node must be kept small, so that the book-keeping required to respond to system membership changes is also small, given that aggressive mem-bership dynamics are expected. As a consequence, lookups have high latency as each lookup requirescontacting several nodes in sequence. In this paper, we question these assumptions bypresenting two peer-to-peer routing algorithms with small lookup paths. First, we present a one-hoprouting scheme. We show how to disseminate information about membership changes quickly enoughso that nodes maintain accurate routing tables with complete membership information. We also deduce analytic bandwidth requirements for our scheme that demonstrate its feasibility.We also propose a two-hop routing scheme for large scale systems of more than a few million nodes,where the bandwidth requirements of one-hop routing can become too large. This scheme keeps a fixed-fraction of the total routing state on each node, chosen such that the first hop has low latency, and thusthe additional delay is small. Structured peer-to-peer overlays like Chord ,CAN , Pastry , and Tapestry  provide
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