Abstract. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been shown to regulate neuronal survival and synaptic plasticity in the central nervous system (CNS) in an activity-dependent manner, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here we report that the number of BDNF receptor TrkB on the surface of hippocampal neurons can be enhanced by high frequency neuronal activity and synaptic transmission, and this ef-2� fect is mediated by Ca influx. Using membrane protein biotinylation as well as receptor binding assays, we show that field electric stimulation increased the number of TrkB on the surface of cultured hippocampal neurons. Immunofluorescence staining suggests that the electric stimulation facilitated the movement of TrkB from intracellular pool to the cell surface, particularly on neuronal processes. The number of surface TrkB wa
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