These lecture notes yield an introduction to quantum Hall effects both for non-relativistic electrons in conventional 2D electron gases (such as in semiconductor heterostructures) and relativistic electrons in graphene. After a brief historical overview in chapter 1, we discuss in detail the kinetic-energy quantisation of non-relativistic and the relativistic electrons in a strong magnetic field (chapter 2). Chapter 3 is devoted to the transport characteristics of the integer quantum Hall effect, and the basic aspects of the fractional quantum Hall effect are described in chapter 4. In chapter 5, we briefly discuss several multicomponent quantum Hall systems, namely the quantum Hall ferromagnetism, bilayer systems and graphene that may be viewed as a four-component system.Comment: 102 pages; lecture notes for the Singapore session ``Ultracold Gases and Quantum Information'' of Les Houches Summer School, 2009; v2 contains minor corrections and additional reference
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