Following publication of the Agrarian History of England and Wales, VII, 1850-1914, this article examines responses to the late nineteentn-century agricultural depression in one of the worst affected counties, Essex, and considers these responses within the broader debate on British economic performance at that time. Responses to depression, especially farmers', were fairly impressive: agriculture did not 'fail'. The Landlords' entrepreneurial performance was less impressive, although their shortcomings are unlikely to have affected either output growth or totaly factor productivity significantly. There were similarities in agricultural and industrial performances although, overall, that of agriculture was arguably the more impressive
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