Chromosome arm 1RS of rye ( Secale cereale L.), when transferred to wheat ( Triticum sp.), significantly influences variety performance, because it carries genes for resistance to disease and insect pathogens. Inserted into wheat, 1RS also promotes haploid production, affects end-product quality, and sometimes affects yield. Therefore, its detection by breeders and geneticists is important. The entire 1RS arm is present in chromosome substitutions and in Robertsonian translocations involving chromosomes 1A, 1B, or 1D of wheat. In recombinant lines, a segment of 1RS has been exchanged with a segment of a group-1 wheat chromosome. Determining the wheat chromosome arm involved in a translocation, the source of rye chromatin, and the amount of 1RS chromatin introduced is necessary for a complete characterization of the introgressed segment. Biochemical, molecular, and cytogenetic technologies are described which enable such a characterization of 1RS in wheat. Examples of using gel electrophoresis, high-performance liquid chromatography, monoclonal antibodies, rye-specific molecular probes, RFLP and PCR assays, chromosome banding, in situ hybridization, and flow cytometry are provided. A comparison of these technologies is made and the advantages and disadvantages of each technology are discussed relative to modern wheat breeding efforts
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