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Managing the Sick Child in the Era of Declining Malaria Transmission: Development of ALMANACH, an Electronic Algorithm for Appropriate Use of Antimicrobials

By Rambaud-Althaus Clotilde, Shao Amani Flexson, Kahama-Maro Judith, Genton Blaise and d’Acremont Valérie


To review the available knowledge on epidemiology and diagnoses of acute infections in children aged 2 to 59 months in primary care setting and develop an electronic algorithm for the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness to reach optimal clinical outcome and rational use of medicines.A structured literature review in Medline, Embase and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Review (CDRS) looked for available estimations of diseases prevalence in outpatients aged 2-59 months, and for available evidence on i) accuracy of clinical predictors, and ii) performance of point-of-care tests for targeted diseases. A new algorithm for the management of childhood illness (ALMANACH) was designed based on evidence retrieved and results of a study on etiologies of fever in Tanzanian children outpatients.The major changes in ALMANACH compared to IMCI (2008 version) are the following: i) assessment of 10 danger signs, ii) classification of non-severe children into febrile and non-febrile illness, the latter receiving no antibiotics, iii) classification of pneumonia based on a respiratory rate threshold of 50 assessed twice for febrile children 12-59 months; iv) malaria rapid diagnostic test performed for all febrile children. In the absence of identified source of fever at the end of the assessment, v) urine dipstick performed for febrile children <2years to consider urinary tract infection, vi) classification of ‘possible typhoid’ for febrile children >2 years with abdominal tenderness; and lastly vii) classification of ‘likely viral infection’ in case of negative results.This smartphone-run algorithm based on new evidence and two point-of-care tests should improve the quality of care of <5 year children and lead to more rational use of antimicrobials

Publisher: Public Library of Science
Year: 2015
DOI identifier: 10.1371/journal.pone.0127674
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