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IFN-λ Inhibits MiR-122 Transcription through a Stat3-HNF4α Inflammatory Feedback Loop in an IFN-α Resistant HCV Cell Culture System

By Aboulnasr Fatma, Hazari Sidhartha, Nayak Satyam, Chandra Partha K., Panigrahi Rajesh, Ferraris Pauline, Chava Srinivas, Kurt Ramazan, Song Kyongsub, Dash Asha, Balart Luis A., Garry Robert F., Wu Tong and Dash Srikanta

Abstract

HCV replication in persistently infected cell culture remains resistant to IFN-α/RBV combination treatment, whereas IFN-λ1 induces viral clearance. The antiviral mechanisms by which IFN-λ1 induces sustained HCV clearance have not been determined.To investigate the mechanisms by which IFN-λ clears HCV replication in an HCV cell culture model.IFN-α sensitive (S3-GFP) and resistant (R4-GFP) cells were treated with equivalent concentrations of either IFN-α or IFN-λ. The relative antiviral effects of IFN-α and IFN-λ1 were compared by measuring the HCV replication, quantification of HCV-GFP expression by flow cytometry, and viral RNA levels by real time RT-PCR. Activation of Jak-Stat signaling, interferon stimulated gene (ISG) expression, and miRNA-122 transcription in S3-GFP and R4-GFP cells were examined.We have shown that IFN-λ1 induces HCV clearance in IFN-α resistant and sensitive replicon cell lines in a dose dependent manner through Jak-Stat signaling, and induces STAT 1 and STAT 2 activation, ISRE-luciferase promoter activation and ISG expression. Stat 3 activation is also involved in IFN-λ1 induced antiviral activity in HCV cell culture. IFN-λ1 induced Stat 3 phosphorylation reduces the expression of hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha (HNF4α) through miR-24 in R4-GFP cells. Reduced expression of HNF4α is associated with decreased expression of miR-122 resulting in an anti-HCV effect. Northern blot analysis confirms that IFN-λ1 reduces miR-122 levels in R4-GFP cells. Our results indicate that IFN-λ1 activates the Stat 3-HNF4α feedback inflammatory loop to inhibit miR-122 transcription in HCV cell culture.In addition to the classical Jak–Stat antiviral signaling pathway, IFN-λ1 inhibits HCV replication through the suppression of miRNA-122 transcription via an inflammatory Stat 3–HNF4α feedback loop. Inflammatory feedback circuits activated by IFNs during chronic inflammation expose non-responders to the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma

Publisher: Public Library of Science
Year: 2015
DOI identifier: 10.1371/journal.pone.0141655
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