<p>Background and aims: The Study on Lifestyle intervention and Impaired glucose tolerance Maastricht (SLIM), a randomized controlled trial, directed at diet and physical activity in impaired glucose tolerant subjects was effective to improve glucose tolerance and prevent type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of the SLIM lifestyle intervention on the incidence and prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) during the active intervention and four years thereafter.</p><p>Methods and results: MetS was diagnosed according to the NCEP ATP III criteria. At baseline, 66.4% of all participants (n = 146, age 57 +/- 7 years, BMI 29.7 +/- 3.6, 51.3% female) fulfilled the criteria for MetS. No significant difference in MetS prevalence was observed between the intervention (63.9%) and control group (68.9%). At the end of active intervention (average duration 4.2 +/- 2.0 years), prevalence of MetS was significantly lower in the intervention group (52.6%, n = 57) compared to the control group (74.6%, n = 59) (p = 0.014).</p><p>Furthermore, in participants without MetS at baseline, cumulative incidence of MetS was 18.2% in the intervention group at the end of active intervention, compared to 73.7% in the control group (Log-rank test, p = 0.011). Four years after stopping active intervention, the reduced incidence of MetS was maintained (Log-rank test, p = 0.002).</p><p>Conclusion: In conclusion, a combined diet-and-exercise intervention to improve glucose tolerance, not only prevented type 2 diabetes, but also reduced the prevalence of MetS and prevented MetS development, showing the long-term impact of lifestyle intervention on cardiovascular risk reduction.</p><p>Clinical trial registration number: NCT 00381186 ( www. clincialtrials. gov). (C) 2013 Elsevier B. V. All rights reserved.</p>
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