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Novel drugs and intervention strategies for the treatment of chronic kidney disease

By Hiddo Jan Lambers Heerspink and Dick de Zeeuw

Abstract

<p>Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a worldwide health problem. The disease is most often progressive of nature with a high impact on patients and society. It is increasingly recognized that CKD can be detected in the early stages and should be managed as early as possible. Treatment of the cause, but in particular control of the main risk markers, such as high blood pressure, glucose and albuminuria, has been instrumental in delaying the progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). However, despite the state of the art therapy, the absolute risk of renal and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in CKD patients remains devastatingly high. Novel drugs are therefore highly desirable to halt effectively the progressive renal (and cardiovascular) function loss. Recently, several novel strategies have been tested targeting traditional risk factors such as blood pressure (combination therapy of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) and novel mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists) as well as dyslipidaemia (statins) with surprising results. In addition, drug targets specifically related to the kidney, such as vitamin D, uric acid, erythropoietin and phosphate, have been the subject of clinical trials, in some instances with unexpected results. Finally, novel targets including endothelin receptors and inflammatory pathways are increasingly explored as potential avenues to improve renal and cardiovascular protection, albeit that the drugs tested have not been unequivocally successful. In this article we review novel drugs or intervention strategies for the management of CKD, we try to provide explanations for the failure of some promising drugs and hypothesize on the potential success of new strategies.</p>

Topics: chronic kidney disease, drugs; nephropathy; personalized medicine; therapy; RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED-TRIAL; CONVERTING-ENZYME-INHIBITOR; RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM; PLACEBO-CONTROLLED TRIAL; MINERALOCORTICOID RECEPTOR ANTAGONISM; TYPE-2 DIABETIC-NEPHROPATHY; GLOMERULAR-FILTRATION-RAT
Year: 2013
DOI identifier: 10.1111/bcp.12195
OAI identifier: oai:pure.rug.nl:publications/c72c6e7d-ecdb-4db4-8a1c-c08d2ddf2117
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