Location of Repository

Disarming fears of diversity: ethnic heterogeneity and state militarization, 1988-2002

By Indra De Soysa and Eric Neumayer

Abstract

This study investigates whether ethnic and other forms of social diversity affect militarization of society. Recent scholarship in economics finds that high diversity leads to lower provision of public goods. At the same time, many conflict studies find that highly diverse societies face a lower risk of civil war, as opposed to relatively more homogenous populations. The authors explore whether diversity prompts governments to militarize heavily in order to prevent armed conflict, which would then crowd out spending on other public goods in a `guns versus butter' trade-off. Thus, `preventive militarization' would explain both outcomes. Yet the authors find the opposite: higher levels of ethnic diversity predict lower levels of militarization. If high diversity lowers the hazard of civil war, as many find, then it does not happen via preventive militarization. If diverse societies spend less on public goods, then this is not because they are crowded out by security spending. The results support those who suggest that diversity may, in fact, pose a lower security threat to states, since it is highly likely that states facing potential social strife would prioritize state militarization

Topics: G Geography (General)
Publisher: SAGE Publications
Year: 2008
DOI identifier: 10.1177/0022343308091358
OAI identifier: oai:eprints.lse.ac.uk:6199
Provided by: LSE Research Online

Suggested articles

Preview

Citations

  1. (1997). Africa' Growth Tragedy: Policies and Ethnic Divisions." Washington D.C.: doi
  2. (2004). Against the Concept of Ethnic Conflict." doi
  3. (2002). Armed Conflict 1946–2001: A New Dataset." doi
  4. (1990). Back to the Future: Instability in Europe After the Cold War." doi
  5. (1995). Balkan Tragedy: Chaos and Dissolution After the Cold War. doi
  6. (2003). Bearing the Defence Burden, 1886–1989: Why Spend More?" doi
  7. (2007). Beyond Fractionalization: Mapping Ethnicity onto Nationalist Insurgencies." The American political science review doi
  8. (2001). Can Institutions Resolve Ethnic Conflict?" doi
  9. (1999). Civil War and the Security Dilemma."
  10. (2000). Colorful Community or Ethnic Witches' Brew?: Multiethnicity and Domestic Conflict During and After the Cold War." doi
  11. (1999). Comparing XTGLS with Regress Cluster ().
  12. (2001). Corruption and Military Spending." doi
  13. (2004). Diffusion and the International Context of Democratization." doi
  14. (1994). Distributive Politics and Economic Growth." doi
  15. (2001). Do Ethnic and Nonethnic Civil Wars Have the Same Causes? A Theoretical and Empirical Inquiry (Part 1)." doi
  16. (2002). Does Cultural Diversity Affect Countries' Respect for Human Rights?" Human Rights Quarterly 24:237–263. doi
  17. (2003). Ethnic and Cultural Diversity by Country."
  18. (2001). Ethnic Conflict and Civil Society: India and Beyond." World Politics 53:362–398. doi
  19. (2005). Ethnic Diversity and Economic Development."
  20. (1997). Ethnic Diversity, Liberty and the State: The African Dilemma. Edited by
  21. (2007). Ethnic Minority Rule and Civil War Onset." doi
  22. (2004). Ethnicity and Repression: The Ethnic Composition of Countries and Human Rights Violations." In Understanding Human Rights Violations: New Systematic Studies,
  23. (2003). Ethnicity, Insurgency, and Civil War." doi
  24. (2002). Ethnicity, Political Systems, and Civil Wars." doi
  25. (2003). EUGene v3.0.
  26. (1996). Explaining Interethnic Cooperation." doi
  27. (2003). Fractionalization." doi
  28. (2006). From Empire to Nationstate: Explaining Wars in the Modern World, 1860–2001." doi
  29. (2001). Generalized Estimation Equation Models for Correlated Data: A Review with Applications." doi
  30. (2004). Greed and Grievance in Civil War." doi
  31. (2003). Håvard Hegre, Anke Hoeffler, Marta Reynal-Querol, and Nicholas Sambanis. doi
  32. (2007). Hell is Other People? Cultural Heterogeneity and Political Terror,
  33. (2001). Implications of Ethnic Diversity." doi
  34. (2005). Kantian Liberalism, Regime Type, and Military Resource Allocation: Do Democracies Spend Less?" doi
  35. (2000). Making Peace Pay: A Bibliography on Disarmament and Conversion.
  36. (2004). Measuring Ethnic Fractionalization in Africa." doi
  37. (2005). Measuring Grievance: Ethno-Political Exclusion and Civil War Onset."
  38. (2002). Military Expenditure and Arms Production Project."
  39. (2003). Military Expenditure Data in Africa: A Survey of Cameroon,
  40. Military Expenditure in Post-conflict Societies." Oxford: Center for the Study of African Economies.
  41. (2002). Military Expenditure: Threats, Aid and Arms Races." doi
  42. Military Expenditure: Threats, Aid and Arms Races." Oxford: Center for the Study of African Economies.
  43. (2001). Military Spending, the Peace Dividend, and Fiscal Adjustment." doi
  44. (1993). Minorities at Risk: A Global View of Ethnopolitical Conflict. doi
  45. (1995). Nuisance vs. Substance: Specifying and Estimating Time-Series–Cross-Section Models." Political Analysis 6. doi
  46. (2006). On the Theory of Ethnic Conflict." doi
  47. (2002). Paradise is a Bazaar? Greed, Creed, and Governance in Civil War, 1989–1999." doi
  48. (2002). Polarization, Politics and Property Rights: Links between Inequality and Growth." doi
  49. (1994). Political Models of Macroeconomic Policy and Fiscal Reforms."
  50. (1968). Political Order in Changing Societies. doi
  51. (1996). Possible and Impossible Solutions to Ethnic Civil Wars." doi
  52. (1999). Public Goods and Ethnic Divisions." doi
  53. (1995). Rents, Military Elites, and Political Democracy." doi
  54. (2000). Social Cohesion, Public Policy, and Economic Growth: Implications for Countries in Transition. doi
  55. (1957). Some Observations on Interethnic Conflicts as One Type of Intergroup Conflict." doi
  56. (1998). Spatial Econometrics: Methods and Models. doi
  57. (1998). Structure and Strategy in Ethnic Conflict: A Few Steps Towards Synthesis. Paper read at
  58. (2000). The Banality of Ethnic War." doi
  59. (1993). The Clash of Civilizations." Foreign Affairs 72:22–49. doi
  60. (1986). The Determinants of Military Expenditures in Developing Countries." doi
  61. (1998). The Diffusion of Democracy, 1946–1994." doi
  62. (1990). The Economics of Defense, Disarmament, and Peace: An Annotated Bibliography.
  63. (1995). The Economics of Defense. Cambridge: doi
  64. (2004). The Globalization of Liberalization: Policy Diffusion in the International Political Economy." doi
  65. (1982). The Rise and Decline of Nations: Economic Growth, Stagflation, and Social Rigidities. New Haven: doi
  66. (2004). The Rise of Religious Nationalism and Conflict: Ethnic Conflict and Revolutionary Wars, 1945–2001." doi
  67. (1993). The Security Dilemma and Ethnic Conflict." Survival 35:27–47. doi
  68. (2001). Triangulating Peace: Democracy, Interdependence, and International Organizations. doi
  69. (2001). Understanding Ethnic Violence: Fear, Hatred, Resentment in Twentieth Century Eastern Europe. Cambridge: doi
  70. What To Do (and Not To Do) with Time-Series Cross-Section Data."
  71. (1997). Who Owns the State? Understanding Ethnic Conflict in PostColonial Societies." doi
  72. (1991). Why Are Stabilizations Delayed?" doi
  73. (2002). Why Ethnic Fractionalization? Polarization, Ethnic Conflict, and Growth." Barcelona: Universitat Pompeu Fabra. doi
  74. (1970). Why Men Rebel. doi
  75. (2003). World Development Indicators CD Rom. doi
  76. (2004). World Development Indicators, CD ROM."
  77. (1995). World Military Expenditures." doi

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.