Abstract Background A stroke in a baby is uncommon, recent studies suggested that their incidence is rising. Moyamoya disease is one of the leading causes of stroke in babies. This condition is mostly described in Japan. In Morocco, moyamoya disease has rarely been reported and a few cases were published. We report a rare Moroccan case of a 23-month-old baby boy who presented with left-sided hemiparesis and was diagnosed as having moyamoya disease. Case presentation A 23-month-old full-term Moroccan baby boy born to a non-consanguineous couple was referred to our hospital with the complaint of sudden onset left-sided hemiparesis. On neurological examination, there were no signs of meningeal irritation, his gait was hemiplegic, tone was decreased over left side, power was 2/5 over left upper and lower limb, and deep tendon reflexes were exaggerated. Preliminary neuroimaging suggested an arterial ischemic process. Clinical and laboratory evaluation excluded hematologic, metabolic, and vasculitic causes. Cerebral angiography confirmed the diagnosis of moyamoya disease. Our patient was treated with acetylsalicylic acid 5 mg/kg per day and referred to follow-up with pediatric neurosurgeon. Cerebral revascularization surgery using encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis was performed. At 8-month follow-up, his hemiparesis had improved and no further ischemic events had occurred. Conclusion This case highlights the importance of considering moyamoya disease to be one of the classic etiologies of acute ischemic strokes in children from North Africa. It also emphasizes the rare presentation among the African population and the use of neurovascular imaging techniques to facilitate diagnosis of moyamoya disease
To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.