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Efficacy of artesunate–amodiaquine in the treatment of falciparum uncomplicated malaria in Madagascar

By Oméga Raobela, Valérie Andriantsoanirina, David Gael Rajaonera, Tovonahary Angelo Rakotomanga, Stéphane Rabearimanana, Fanomezantsoa Ralinoro, Didier Ménard and Arsène Ratsimbasoa

Abstract

Abstract Background Since 2006, the artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) are recommended to treat uncomplicated malaria including non Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Madagascar. Artesunate–amodiaquine (ASAQ) and artemether–lumefantrine are the first- and second-line treatment in uncomplicated falciparum malaria, respectively. No clinical drug efficacy study has been published since 2009 to assess the efficacy of these two artemisinin-based combinations in Madagascar, although the incidence of malaria cases has increased from 2010 to 2016. In this context, new data about the efficacy of the drug combinations currently used to treat malaria are needed. Methods Therapeutic efficacy studies evaluating the efficacy of ASAQ were conducted in 2012, 2013 and 2016 among falciparum malaria-infected patients aged between 6 months and 56 years, in health centres in 6 sites representing different epidemiological patterns. The 2009 World Health Organization protocol for monitoring anti-malarial drug efficacy was followed. Results A total of 348 enrolled patients met the inclusion criteria including 108 patients in 2012 (n = 64 for Matanga, n = 44 for Ampasipotsy), 123 patients in 2013 (n = 63 for Ankazomborona, n = 60 for Anjoma Ramartina) and 117 patients in 2016 (n = 67 for Tsaratanana, n = 50 for Antanimbary). The overall cumulative PCR-corrected day 28 cure rate was 99.70% (95% IC 98.30–99.95). No significant difference in cure rates was observed overtime: 99.02% (95% IC 94.65–99.83) in 2012; 100% (95% IC 96.8–100) in 2013 and 100% (95% IC 96.65–100) in 2016. Conclusion The ASAQ combination remains highly effective for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Madagascar

Topics: Malaria, Plasmodium falciparum, Therapeutic efficacy survey, Artesunate–amodiaquine, Madagascar, Arctic medicine. Tropical medicine, RC955-962, Infectious and parasitic diseases, RC109-216
Publisher: BMC
Year: 2018
DOI identifier: 10.1186/s12936-018-2440-0
OAI identifier: oai:doaj.org/article:29528d055a9a4121930e49867e43ae6b
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