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Development and initial validation of the Morningness-Eveningness Exercise Preference Questionnaire (MEEPQ) in Japanese university students.

By Ryo Miyazaki, Hitoshi Ando, Tomoko Hamasaki, Yukito Higuchi, Kazushige Oshita, Tomoki Tashiro and Naoki Sakane

Abstract

The aim of this study was to develop a questionnaire to conveniently assess the diurnal preferences of physical activity (PA) in Japanese university students. A total of 219 subjects completed our novel Morningness-eveningness Exercise Preference Questionnaire (MEEPQ). The MEEPQ consisted of 30 items (15 items for the morning and the same 15 items for the evening) rated on a 5-point Likert scale concerning their preference for participating in PA in the morning and evening. The morning score (MS) and evening score (ES) were determined by summing each of the respective 15 items. The internal consistency and construct validity were assessed, and a factor analysis was conducted. To examine the external validity of the MEEPQ, participants wore an accelerometer for seven consecutive days to measure their PA levels objectively. Finally, the test-retest reliability was evaluated at a one-month interval. The MEEPQ showed excellent internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.896) and construct validity (morning KMO = 0.913, evening KMO = 0.875). A factor analysis showed a three-factor structure involving Physical Wellness (MEEPQ-W), Psychological Well-Being (MEEPQ-P) and Exercise Barrier (MEEPQ-B). The percent of variance was largest for MEEPQ-W in the morning (45.2%) and MEEPQ-P in the evening (40.8%). Test-retest showed that MEEPQ scores had fair repeatability. Significant and positive associations between scores and objectively measured PA levels were found in the MS and 6-9 AM PA and in the ES and 6-9 PM and 9 PM- 0 AM PA (all p<0.05). In summary, the novel MEEPQ showed relatively good agreement and thus can be used for Japanese university student samples. In the MEEPQ, three factors (the physical wellness, psychological well-being and exercise barrier) contributed to a morning or evening PA preference. The summed scores were significantly associated with the objectively measured PA levels in both the morning and evening. Therefore the MEEPQ appears to be a suitable tool for assessing diurnal PA preferences

Topics: Medicine, R, Science, Q
Publisher: Public Library of Science (PLoS)
DOI identifier: 10.1371/journal.pone.0200870
OAI identifier: oai:doaj.org/article:ca37bad5415e430ea3a38a7f445cc5b0
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