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An Electrochemical Sensor for Diphenylamine Detection Based on Reduced Graphene Oxide/Fe<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub>-Molecularly Imprinted Polymer with 1,4-Butanediyl-3,3′-bis-l-vinylimidazolium Dihexafluorophosphate Ionic Liquid as Cross-Linker

By Lingyu Liu, Xudong Zhu, Yanbo Zeng, Hailong Wang, Yixia Lu, Jian Zhang, Zhengzhi Yin, Zhidong Chen, Yiwen Yang and Lei Li

Abstract

In this paper, we report a new composite of reduced graphene oxide/Fe<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub>-ionic liquid based molecularly imprinted polymer (RGO/Fe<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub>-IL-MIP) fabricated for diphenylamine (DPA) detection. RGO/Fe<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub>-IL-MIP was prepared with RGO/Fe<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub> as supporter, ionic liquid 1-vinyl-3-butylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([VC<sub>4</sub>mim][PF<sub>6</sub>]) as functional monomer, ionic liquid 1,4-butanediyl-3,3&#8217;-bis-l-vinylimidazolium dihexafluorophosphate ([V<sub>2</sub>C<sub>4</sub>(mim)<sub>2</sub>][(PF<sub>6</sub>)<sub>2</sub>]) as cross-linker, and diphenylamine (DPA) as template molecule. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometer were employed to characterize the RGO/Fe<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub>-IL-MIP composite. RGO/Fe<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub>-IL-MIP was then drop-cast onto a glassy carbon electrode to construct an electrochemical sensor for DPA. The differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) peak current response for 20 &#956;M DPA of RGO/Fe<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub>-IL-MIP modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was 3.24 and 1.68 times that of RGO/Fe<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub>-IL-NIP and RGO/Fe<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub>-EGDMA-MIP modified GCEs, respectively, indicating the advantage of RGO/Fe<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub>-IL-MIP based on ionic liquid (IL) as a cross-linker. The RGO/Fe<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub>-IL-MIP sensor demonstrated good recognition for DPA. Under the optimized conditions, the RGO/Fe<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub>-IL-MIP sensor exhibited a DPA detection limit of 0.05 &#956;M (S/N = 3) with a linear range of 0.1&#8315;30 &#956;M. Moreover, the new RGO/Fe<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub>-IL-MIP based sensor detected DPA in real samples with satisfactory results

Topics: reduced graphene oxide, Fe<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub>, molecularly imprinted polymer, ionic liquid cross-linker, electrochemical sensor, diphenylamine, Organic chemistry, QD241-441
Publisher: MDPI AG
Year: 2018
DOI identifier: 10.3390/polym10121329
OAI identifier: oai:doaj.org/article:c5af3f36b82048aab271858f7c87f08d
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