Successful prevention of perinatal HIV transmission utilizing direct observation therapy in the setting of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy


We report a case of a 22-year-old G1P0010 African-American female with poorly controlled perinatally acquired HIV/AIDS and recent diagnosis of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). She presented to a tertiary care facility for prenatal care and direct observation therapy after poor medication adherence during pregnancy. After multiple attempts at outpatient ART management, the patient was admitted at 35 weeks’ gestation for direct observation therapy for both antiretroviral therapy and anti-seizure medication. Viral load at that time was 22,487 copies/mL and she was admitted and started on a salvage regimen which included: dolutegravir, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine, darunavir, ritonavir, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole for Pneumocystis jirovecii prophylaxis. The patient remained on direct observation therapy throughout her two-week hospital stay with final viral load of 1211 copies/mL, CD4 284/uL at time of delivery at 37 weeks’ gestation, with minimal seizure activity. The infant received postnatal antiretroviral therapy including three doses of zidovudine and nevirapine with negative HIV PCR at birth, 2, 4, and 6 months postpartum and is currently HIV negative

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oai:doaj.org/article:1308a6c70dcb4c1db4615121ded8a980Last time updated on 6/4/2019

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