Novel strategies are needed to solve the conundrum of achieving clinical efficacy with high vector copy numbers (VCNs) in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) while attempting to minimize the potential risk of oncogenesis in lentiviral vector (LV)-mediated gene therapy clinical trials. We previously reported the benefits of reprogramming erythroid-megakaryocytic (EMK) cells for high-level lysosomal enzyme production with less risk of activating oncogenes in HSCs. Herein, using a murine model of mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I) with a deficiency of α-L-iduronidase (IDUA), we sought to determine the transgene minimum effective doses (MEDs) in major organs, and if a transient increase of IDUA-containing red blood cells and platelets by repeated phlebotomy would provide further therapeutic benefits in diseased mice after EMK-restricted LV-mediated gene therapy. The MEDs for complete metabolic correction ranged from 0.1 to 2 VCNs in major visceral organs, which were dramatically reduced to 0.005–0.1 VCN by one cycle of stress induction and were associated with a further reduction of pathological deficits in mice with 0.005 VCN. This work provides a proof of concept that transiently stimulating erythropoiesis and thrombopoiesis can further improve therapeutic benefits in HSC-mediated gene therapy for MPS I, a repeatable and reversible approach to enhance clinical efficacy in the treatment of lysosomal storage diseases. Keywords: preclinical efficacy, hematopoietic stems cells, gene therapy, stress erythropoiesis and thrombopoiesis, erythroid and megakaryocytic lineages, lysosomal storage disease, minimum effective transgene dosages, targeted expression, mucopolysaccharidose
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