Abstract Background Psychological problems might play important roles in oral mucosal diseases such as recurrent aphthous ulcers (RAU), oral lichen planus (OLP), burning mouth syndrome (BMS), but the relevance to patients’ quality of life remained controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the psychological problems and oral health-related quality of life in patients with RAU, OLP, and BMS in China, to assess the relationship between psychological problems and quality of life. Method Thirty-nine RAU patients, 45 OLP patients, 15 BMS patients and 45 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) were chosen to analyze the patients’ psychological problems. Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14) was used to measure the OHRQoL. The scores of HADS and OHIP-14 were used to analyze the relationship between psychological problems and the quality of life of oral mucosa patients. Results Each of OHIP-14 scores and HADS scores in RAU, OLP, BMS was higher than the control group, and there was significant difference in the patients groups with the control cases(P < 0.05). OHIP-14 score of RAU was the highest in three patient groups. Its OHRQoL was lowest in the three groups, which had statistical significance (P < 0.05). Positive correlations existed between the psychological problems and the quality of life of the three patient groups (r s > 0, P < 0.05), except for the depression of the BMS group (r s = 0.168, P = 0.395). Conclusion Patients with oral mucosal diseases such as RAU, OLP, and BMS had higher levels of anxiety, depression, and lower quality of life. The patient’s psychological problems were related to their quality of life, suggesting that the psychological state of patients with oral mucosal disease need more attention
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