The diagnosis of strongyloidiasis by coprological methods has a low sensitivity, underestimating the prevalence of Strongyloides stercoralis in endemic areas. Serodiagnostic tests for strongyloidiasis have shown robust diagnostic properties. However, these methods require a blood draw, an invasive and labor-intensive sample collection method, especially in the resource-limited settings where S. stercoralis is endemic. Our study examines a urine-based assay for strongyloidiasis and compares its diagnostic accuracy with coprological and serological methods. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses determined the diagnostic sensitivity (D-Sn) and specificity (D-Sp) of the urine ELISA, as well as estimates its positive predictive value and diagnostic risk. The likelihood ratios of obtaining a positive test result (LR+) or a negative test result (LR-) were calculated for each diagnostic positivity threshold. The urine ELISA assay correlated significantly with the serological ELISA assay for strongyloidiasis, with a D-Sn of 92.7% and a D-Sp of 40.7%, when compared to coprological methods. Moreover, the urine ELISA IgG test had a detection rate of 69%, which far exceeds the coprological method (28%). The likelihood of a positive diagnosis of strongyloidiasis by the urine ELISA IgG test increased significantly with increasing units of IgG detected in urine. The urine ELISA IgG assay for strongyloidiasis assay has a diagnostic accuracy comparable to serological assay, both of which are more sensitive than coprological methods. Since the collection of urine is easy and non-invasive, the urine ELISA IgG assay for strongyloidiasis could be used to screen populations at risk for strongyloidiasis in S. stercoralis endemic areas
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