Abstract HLA-haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) may be an option for severe aplastic anemia (SAA) patients. However, to date, no large-sample studies have been performed to determine which types of SAA patients are suitable for HLA-haploidentical HSCT. We retrospectively studied 189 consecutive patients with SAA who underwent HLA-identical or HLA-haploidentical HSCT at seven transplant centers in China. Propensity score matching (PSM) was applied in this study to reduce the influence of potential confounders. The 5-year overall survival (OS) rate was 72.0% in the HLA-haploidentical group and 76.5% in the HLA-identical group. The median time to achieve engraftment and the incidence of acute GVHD/chronic GVHD were not significantly different between the two groups. In the subgroup analysis, the outcome of patients older than 40 years in the HLA-haploidentical group was significantly poorer than that of patients younger than 40 years in the same group and that of patients older than 40 years in the HLA-identical group. Based on the above results, we suggest that HLA-haploidentical relative HSCT should be considered as a valid alternative option for patients younger than 40 years with SAA for whom no matched sibling donor is available
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