Since the late 1970s, China has experienced rapid economic growth and urbanisation. However, in recent years, various social pressures and tensions began to hold down the optimism buttressed by the economic growth. There are signs showing that the basis of sustained economic growth - rich labour supply and stable social conditions will unavoidably suffer from the lagging social reforms targeting the inequality and vulnerability of migrant workers. This paper argues that the discussion of social exclusion and its risks as a potential threat to urban stability in the Chinese context should consider the deprivation of various rights, including political, social and economic rights and be extended to rural-urban migrants who do not necessarily enjoy urban citizenship. The paper suggests that there need be major policy changes in order to integrate rural-urban migrants into the mainstream of the urban society
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