Lima, like other Latin American metropolises, has experienced profound changes since the 1990s. The new spatial order is characterised by an increasing number of gated residential areas. The particular outcome in the Peruvian capital needs special attention however. This article focuses on the so-called residential enclaves. Due to a lack of prior studies, it will first establish a typology for Lima and give a general overview and then present evidence from selected neighbourhoodds to illustrate the characteristics of residential enclave building. This process involves the appropriation, control and fortification of space in existing neighbourhoods through the initiative of their residents. It will argued that this process is closely related to, both, the exposure of the population to a range of insecurities and the inability of the State to provide sufficient protection
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