Goethite, one of the most thermodynamically stable iron oxides, has been extensively researched especially the structure (including surface structure), the adsorption capacity to anions, organic/organic acid (especially for the soil organic carbon) and cations in the natural environment and its potential application in environmental protection. For example, the adsorption of heavy metals by goethite can decrease the concentration of heavy metals in aqueous solution and immobilize; the adsorption to soil organic carbon can decrease the release of carbon and fix carbon. In this present overview, the possible physicochemical properties of the goethite surface contributing to the strong affinity of goethite to nutrients and contaminants in natural environment are reported. Moreover, these chemicals adsorbed by goethite were also summarized and the suggested adsorption mechanism for these adsorbates was elucidated, which will help us understand the role of goethite in natural environment and provide some information about goethite as an absorbent. In addition, the feasibility of goethite used as catalyst carrier and the precursor of NZVI was proposed for removal of environmental pollution
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