PURPOSE: To evaluate computed tomography (CT) perfusion for assessment of early treatment response after transarterial radioembolization of patients with liver malignancy.\ud MATERIALS AND METHODS: Dynamic contrast-enhanced CT liver perfusion was performed before and 4 weeks after transarterial radioembolization in 40 patients (25 men and 15 women; mean age, 64 y ± 11; range, 35-80 y) with liver metastases (n = 27) or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) (n = 13). Arterial perfusion (AP) of tumors derived from CT perfusion and tumor diameters were measured on CT perfusion before and after transarterial radioembolization. Success of transarterial radioembolization was evaluated on morphologic follow-up imaging (median follow-up time, 4 mo) based on Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (Version 1.1). CT perfusion parameters before and after transarterial radioembolization for different response groups were compared. Kaplan-Meier curves were plotted to illustrate overall 1-year survival rates.\ud RESULTS: Liver metastases showed significant differences in AP before and after transarterial radioembolization in responders (P < .05) but not in nonresponders (P = .164). In HCC, AP values before and after transarterial radioembolization were not significantly different in responders and nonresponders (P = .180 and P = .052). Tumor diameters were not significantly different on CT perfusion before and after transarterial radioembolization in responders and nonresponders with liver metastases and HCC (P = .654, P = .968, P = .148, P = .164). In patients with significant decrease of AP in liver metastases after transarterial radioembolization, 1-year overall survival was significantly higher than in patients showing no reduction of AP.\ud CONCLUSIONS: CT perfusion showed early reduction of AP in liver metastases responding to transarterial radioembolization; tumor diameter remained unchanged early after treatment. No significant early treatment response to transarterial radioembolization was found in patients with HCC. In patients with liver metastases, a decrease of AP after transarterial radioembolization was associated with a higher 1-year overall survival rate
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