The SLC34 family of sodium-driven phosphate cotransporters comprises three members: NaPi-IIa (SLC34A1), NaPi-IIb (SLC34A2), and NaPi-IIc (SLC34A3). These transporters mediate the translocation of divalent inorganic phosphate (HPO4 (2-)) together with two (NaPi-IIc) or three sodium ions (NaPi-IIa and NaPi-IIb), respectively. Consequently, phosphate transport by NaPi-IIa and NaPi-IIb is electrogenic. NaPi-IIa and NaPi-IIc are predominantly expressed in the brush border membrane of the proximal tubule, whereas NaPi-IIb is found in many more organs including the small intestine, lung, liver, and testis. The abundance and activity of these transporters are mostly regulated by changes in their expression at the cell surface and are determined by interactions with proteins involved in scaffolding, trafficking, or intracellular signaling. All three transporters are highly regulated by factors including dietary phosphate status, hormones like parathyroid hormone, 1,25-OH2 vitamin D3 or FGF23, electrolyte, and acid-base status. The physiological relevance of the three members of the SLC34 family is underlined by rare Mendelian disorders causing phosphaturia, hypophosphatemia, or ectopic organ calcifications
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