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Hematological features and expression profile of myeloid antigens of acute promyelocytic leukemia patients: analysis of prognostic factors for development of the retinoic acid syndrome

By Flávia Leite Souza Santos, Adriana I. Dore, Ana Sílvia G. Lima, Aglair B. Garcia, Marco A. Zago, Edgar G. Rizzatti, Jorge Elias Jr, Roberto Passetto Falcão and Eduardo Magalhães Rego

Abstract

OBJETIVO: A leucemia promielocítica aguda (LPA) apresenta uma boa resposta ao tratamento com o ácido all trans retinóico (ATRA). Entretanto, alguns pacientes desenvolvem uma complicação grave chamada síndrome do ácido retinóico (SAR). O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar as características hematológicas e imunofenotípicas de pacientes com LPA que desenvolveram a SAR com as daqueles que não a desenvolveram. MÉTODOS: Foram analisados retrospectivamente os prontuários, exames radiológicos, lâminas de esfregaço de sangue e medula óssea de 71 pacientes com LPA, dos quais a análise imunofenotípica havia sido realizada em 56 casos. Foram identificados oito casos de SAR que, do ponto de vista clínico, caracterizaram-se por insuficiência respiratória (n=8), insuficiência renal (n=2), febre (n=5), ganho ponderal (n=3), edema periférico (n=3) e derrame pleural (n=5). As seguintes variáveis foram comparadas entre pacientes com e sem SAR: dosagem de hemoglobina, contagens de leucócitos e plaquetas no sangue periférico, distribuição dos subtipos hipergranular e variante, percentagens de blastos CD33+, CD13+, CD117+ na medula óssea, intensidade e variação dos valores de fluorescência destes antígenos nas células leucêmicas, expressas através dos canais medianos (CMFs) e dos coeficientes de variação (CVs) de fluorescência, respectivamente. RESULTADOS: A incidência da SAR foi de 11,26% e o tempo médio para seu desenvolvimento 11,5 dias do início do tratamento. Todos os pacientes apresentaram desconforto respiratório agudo, por vezes associado à febre, ganho de peso, edema e insuficiência renal. Os achados radiológicos mais comuns foram: opacidades em vidro fosco, derrame pleural, espessamento peribrônquico e aumento da trama vascular pulmonar. Nenhuma das variáveis laboratoriais analisadas correlacionou-se significativamente ao risco de desenvolvimento da SAR, entretanto as Odd Ratios para CMF para o CD117 > 30 ua e CV para o CD33 < 50 foram de 7,14 (P=0,08) e de 7,86 (P=0,06), respectivamente. CONCLUSÃO: A incidência e as características da SAR neste grupo de pacientes brasileiros foi semelhante à descrita na literatura. Nenhum dos parâmetros estudados correlacionou-se significativamente a um maior risco de desenvolvimento desta complicação.BACKGROUND: Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (APL) is characterized by its good response to treatment with all trans retinoic acid (ATRA). However, some patients receiving ATRA develop a serious complication called retinoid syndrome (RS). The objective of this study was to compare the hematological and immunophenotypic features of APL patients who developed RS with those who did not. METHODS: We reviewed the medical records, roentgenograms, peripheral blood smears and bone marrow aspirates from 71 APL patients. Immunophenotypic analyses were available in 56 of these cases. Eight cases of RS were detected, whose clinical presentation was characterized by respiratory distress (n=8), impairment of the renal function (n=2), fever (n=5), weight gain (n=3), edema (n=3) and/or pleural effusion (n=5). The following variables were compared in patients with and without RS: hemoglobin levels, leukocyte and platelet counts, frequency of hypergranular and variant morphological subtypes, percentages of CD33+, CD13+, CD117+ blasts in the bone marrow, fluorescence intensity and variation of these markers in the leukemic cells, expressed as the median channel of fluorescence (MCF) and fluorescence coefficient of variation (CV), respectively. RESULTS: RS incidence was 11.26% and the average time for syndrome development was 11.5 days after starting ATRA treatment. All patients presented acute respiratory distress. Other symptoms included fever, weight gain, edema and renal insufficiency. The main radiological findings were ground glass opacities, increased vascular pedicle and peribronchial cuffing. There was no significant correlation between the variables selected and the risk of development of RS, however the Odds Ratios for patients presenting MCF for CD117 > 30 ua and CV for CD33 < 50 were of 7.14 (P=0.08) and 7.86 ( P=0.06), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence, as well as the clinical, radiological and laboratory features of RS in this group of Brazilian APL patients were similar to those described in literature. None of the variables studied were significantly correlated to a higher risk of developing RS

Topics: Leucemia mielóide aguda, Leucemia promielocítica aguda, Síndrome do ácido retinóico, Imunofenotipagem, Ácido all trans retinóico, Acute myeloid leukemia, Acute Promyelocytic leukemia, Retinoid syndrome, All trans retinoic acid, Immunophenotyping
Publisher: Associação Médica Brasileira
Year: 2004
OAI identifier: oai:scielo:S0104-42302004000300036
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