Skip to main content
Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

In-migrants and exclusion in east African rangelands: access, tenure and conflict

By K. Homewood, Ernestina Coast and D. M. Thompson


East African rangelands have a long history of population mobility linked to competition over key resources, negotiated access, and outright conflict. Both in the literature and in local discourse, in-migration is presented as leading to increased competition, driving poverty and social exclusion on the one hand and conflict and violence on the other. Current analyses in developing countries identify economic differences, ethnic fault lines, ecological stresses and a breakdown in State provision of human and constitutional rights as factors in driving conflict. The present paper explores this interaction of in-migration and conflict with respect to Kenyan and Tanzanian pastoralist areas and populations. Using quantitative and qualitative methods, patterns of resource access and control in Kenya and Tanzania Maasailand are explored in terms of the ways land and livestock are associated with migration status, ethnicity and wealth or political class. Contrasts and similarities between the two national contexts are used to develop a better understanding of the ways these factors operate under different systems of tenure and access. The conclusion briefly considers implications of these patterns, their potential for exacerbating poverty, and policies for minimising social exclusion and conflict in East African rangelands

Topics: GF Human ecology. Anthropogeography, GN Anthropology
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Year: 2004
DOI identifier: 10.2307/3556842
OAI identifier:
Provided by: LSE Research Online

Suggested articles


  1. (1990). Tanzania: executive order denies land rights. Barabaig suffer beatings, arson and criminal charges’,
  2. (1996). In Search of Cool Ground: war, flight and homecoming doi
  3. (1998). Anthropological perspectives on migration in Africa’,
  4. (2002). Eroding the Commons: the politics of ecology in Baringo, Kenya 1890s–1963. doi
  5. (1993). Natural Resource Management in Tropical Africa’. Paper presented at the workshop ‘Listening to the People: social aspects of dryland management’. United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP),
  6. (2003). Maasai Schooling Strategies: a case-study of Engare Naibor, Tanzania’. M.Sc. thesis. Anthropology Department, University College,
  7. (1999). African rural labour, income diversification and livelihood approaches: a long term development perspective’, doi
  8. (1997). Farewell to Farms: de-agrarianisation and employment in Africa. doi
  9. (2001). Taking stock of pastoralist NGOs in Tanzania’, doi
  10. (1993). Land as ours, land as mine: economic, political and ecological marginalisation in Kajiado district, Kenya’,
  11. (2002). Education for Nomads in
  12. (2002). Conservation and Mobile Indigenous Peoples: displacement, forced settlement, and sustainable development.N e wY o r k and doi
  13. (1989). Environmental degradation as a consequence of socio-political conflict in Eastern Mara Region, Tanzania’,
  14. (1998). The single round demographic survey’,
  15. (2000). contract IC18-CT96-0070. London: University College.
  16. (2000). Cattle clashes in Tanzania’.
  17. (1996). Entitlements to Natural Resources: contours of political environmental geography. Inaugural Lecture, doi
  18. (2000). Rural Livelihoods and Diversity in Developing Countries.O x f o r d and New York:
  19. (1999). Cattle raiding and household demography among the Kuria of Tanzania’, doi
  20. (1994). Ethnicity and Conflict in the Horn of Africa. London: James Currey; Athens: doi
  21. (1980). The Maasai Group Ranch’,
  22. (1999). African Pastoralist Systems: an integrated approach. Boulder CO: Lynne Rienner.
  23. (1992). Herders, Warriors, and Traders: pastoralism in Africa. Boulder CO: doi
  24. (1990). Water, land and livestock: evolution of tenure and administration patterns in the grazing areas of Botswana,’
  25. (1995). Development, demarcation and ecological outcomes in Maasailand’, doi
  26. (2001). Long-term changes in Serengeti-Mara wildebeest and land cover: pastoralism, population, or policies?’ doi
  27. (1991). Maasailand Ecology: pastoralist development and wildlife conservation in Ngorongoro, Tanzania. Cambridge and New York: doi
  28. (1998). Conflict between Farmers and Herders in the Semi-arid Sahel and East Africa: a review. Pastoral Land Tenure series, no 10.
  29. (1996). Nuer Dilemmas: coping with money, war, and the state. doi
  30. (1999). Pastoral Land Tenure and Community Conservation: a case study from north-east Tanzania. Pastoral Land Tenure series, no 11.
  31. for Environment and Development). 1992–1999. Pastoral Land Tenure series.
  32. (1997). Winners and losers: household fortunes in the urban peripheries of northern Nigeria’,
  33. (1987). for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources). doi
  34. (1996). Uduk resettlement’,
  35. (2002). The Conflict between Conventional Conservation Strategies and Indigenous Conservation Systems: the case study of Ngorongoro Conservation Area’.
  36. (2002). Civil Society, Democratization and Conflict Management: recent developments from Tanzania’. Paper presented at the seminar ‘Democratization and Conflict Management in Eastern Africa’,
  37. (2001). Ethnic clashes’’ and winning elections: the case of Kenya’s electoral despotism’, doi
  38. (1998). Conflict, Age and Power in North East Africa: age systems in transition. doi
  39. (1990). The Loita-Mara Region in historical times: patterns of subsistence, settlement and ecological change’,
  40. (1996). Poverty, politics and pastoralists in East Africa’, Anthropology in Action 33: 11–13. 1996b. Pastures Lost: Barabaig economy, resource tenure, and the alienation of their land
  41. (1998). Custodians of the Commons: pastoral land tenure in East and West Africa. London: doi
  42. (2000). Policy and legal issues on wildlife management in Tanzania’s pastoral lands: the case study of the Ngorongoro Conservation Area’, Law, Social Justice and Global
  43. (1967). The Kipsigis’,
  44. (1999). Pastoralists and politicians in Kenya’, doi
  45. (2000). Pastoral politics in the northeast periphery of Uganda: AK-47 as change agent’, doi
  46. (1997). the Ad-hoc Ministerial Commission: a conservation and developmentstrategyfortheNgorongoroConservationArea’.DaresSalaam: Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism.
  47. (1981). A case in rural development: the Maasai Range development project’,inJ.Moris(ed.),ManagingInducedRuralDevelopment.Bloomington:
  48. (1999). Maasai land, law and dispossession’,
  49. (1999). Conservation Area Authority).
  50. (1982). Operation Imparnati’’: the sedentarization of the pastoral Maasai in Tanzania’, Nomadic Peoples 10: 28–39. 1990a. ‘Pastoral territoriality and land degradation in Tanzania’,
  51. (1990). Uppsala: Scandinavian Institute of African Studies. doi
  52. (1999). Managing Mobility in African Rangelands: the legitimization of transhumance. London: doi
  53. (2000). Legislative approaches to customary tenure a n dt e n u r er e f o r mi nE a s tA f r i c a ’ ,i nC .T o u l m i na n dJ .Q u a n( e d s ) ,Evolving Land Rights, Policy, and Tenure in Africa. London:
  54. (1994). Pluralism and ethnic conflict in Tanzania’s aridlands: the case of the Maasai and the waArusha’,
  55. (2002). Arrests after Tanzania clashes’.
  56. (2000). Land policy in Africa: lessons from recent policy and implementation processes’, in
  57. (1993). Coercing conservation? The politics of state resource control’,
  58. (1997). The Ngorongoro Conservation Area: values, history and landuse conflicts’,
  59. (2000). Does Africa need land reform?’
  60. (1994). Property Concepts, Herding Patterns and Management of Natural Resources among the Ngorongoro and Salei Maasai of Tanzania. Pastoral Land Tenure series, no 6.
  61. (1992). Selling Wealth to Buy Poverty: the process of the individualization of land ownership among the Maasai pastoralists of Kajiado District, Kenya 1890–1990. Saarbr¨ ucken:
  62. (1995). New directions in pastoralist development in Africa’, doi
  63. (1998). Not Yet Democracy: reforming land tenure in Tanzania. London and Dar es Salaam: IIED (International Institute for Environment and Development); Dar es Salaam: Hakiardhi,
  64. (1998). Maasai rights in Ngorongoro, Tanzania. London and Dar es Salaam: IIED (International Institute for Environment and Development); Dar es Salaam: Hakiardhi,
  65. (1996). Environmental management in Kenya’s arid and semi-arid lands: an overview’. Rural Resources/Rural Livelihoods Working Papers,
  66. (2000). Uncommon property: the scramble for wetland in southern Kenya’,
  67. (1997). Mountain Farmers: moral economies of land and agricultural development in Arusha and Meru. Oxford: James Currey; Dar es Salaam: Mkuki wa Nyota; Berkeley:
  68. (1993). Being Maasai: ethnicity and identity in East Africa. London: James Currey; Dar es Salaam: Mkuki wa Nyota; Nairobi: East African Educational Publishers (EAEP); Athens: doi
  69. (1988). The Maasai of Matapato: a study of rituals of rebellion. Manchester: doi
  70. (2002). Root causes of violent conflict in developing countries’, doi
  71. (1988). Women at a Loss: changes in Maasai pastoralism and their effects on gender relations.
  72. United Republic of. doi
  73. (1994). Scandinavian Institute of African Studies. doi
  74. (2002). Livestock, Cultivation and Tourism: livelihood choices and conservation in Maasai Mara buffer zones’.
  75. (1997). Multiple Land-Use: the experience of the Ngorongoro Conservation Area
  76. (2002). Elites, entrepreneurs and exclusion in
  77. (2000). Evolving Land Rights, Policy, and Tenure in Africa. doi
  78. (1996). Migrants and refugees: a Mursi case study’,
  79. (1976). The Maasai and the British 1895–1905’, doi
  80. (1990). The Ecology of Survival: case studies from northeast African history. London: Lester Crook Academic Publishing; Boulder CO: Westview Press. doi

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.