Location of Repository

Role of acanthamoeba spp. in the environmental survival of listeria monocytogenes

By Yakubu Nale

Abstract

Listeria monocytogenes causes a potentially deadly disease of man and is a major source of contamination in food industry. The mechanism of survival and persistence of L. monocytogenes in the environment is not fully known. The present study investigates the possible role of Acanthamoebae in the survival and persistence of L. monocytogenes in the environment. This was achieved through experiments that brings together the two organisms in a co-culture and then examined ability of bacteria to survive in the presence of amoeba, inside amoeba trophozoites and in their cysts. The effects of intracellular survival on L. monocytogenes’ morphology, ability to form biofilms and respond to biocides inside and outside the cysts were also examined. In summary, L. monocytogenes Scott A was found to survive and grow in Acanthamoeba over 72 h. In addition, exposure of bacteria to manganese enhanced intracellular growth and survival of L. monocytogenes within Acanthamoeba. While L. monocytogenes Scott A survived and replicated in A. castellanii, it barely survived in A. polyphaga and never survived in A. culbertsoni. None of the other strains of L. monocytogenes tested were able to survive in Acanthamoeba. Autophagy, which was previously shown to aid survival of L. monocytogenes in macrophages, was also found contribute to survival within Acanthamoeba. In addition to surviving within A. castellanii trophozoites, L. monocytogenes Scott A also survived encystment of the host amoeba. L. monocytogenes sequestered in cysts were protected from high level of chlorine that is lethal to free bacteria. In addition, L. monocytogenes recovered from cysts were predominantly filamentous and demonstrated enhanced ability to form biofilm and also exhibited increased resistance to a disinfectant and some antibiotics that are normally used in treatment of listerial infections. The observations suggest that A.castellanii could potentially contribute to the survival, dissemination, and persistence of bacteria in the environment

Publisher: University of Leicester
Year: 2011
OAI identifier: oai:lra.le.ac.uk:2381/10056

Suggested articles

Preview

Citations

  1. (1988). 3-Methyladenine, an inhibitor of autophagy, has multiple effects on metabolism,
  2. (1968). 7-Dehydrostigmasterol and ergosterol: the major sterols of an amoeba,
  3. (2003). A 6×6 drop plate method for simultaneous colony counting and MPN enumeration of Campylobacter jejuni, Listeria monocytogenes, and Escherichia coli,
  4. (2007). A comparison of the growth and starvation responses of Acanthamoeba castellanii and Hartmannella vermiformis in the presence of suspended and attached Escherichia coli K12,
  5. (1992). A gene encoding a Superoxide dismutase of the facultative intracellular bacterium Listeria monocytogenes,
  6. (1980). A morphological study of plasma and phagosome membranes during endocytosis in Acanthamoeba,
  7. (2011). A quantitative assay for the monitoring of autophagosome accumulation in different phases of the cell cycle,
  8. (1976). A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding,
  9. (2005). Ability of orally administered IFN-alpha-containing transgenic potato extracts to inhibit Listeria monocytogenes infection,
  10. (2009). Acanthamoeba castellanii an environmental host for Shigella dysenteriae and Shigella sonnei, Archives of Microbiology,
  11. (1998). Acanthamoeba castellanii: Growth, encystment, excystment and biocide susceptibility,
  12. (2010). Acanthamoeba culbertsoni: Analysis of amoebic adhesion and invasion on extracellular matrix components collagen I and laminin-1, Experimental Parasitology,
  13. (2010). Acanthamoeba polyphaga is a possible host for Vibrio cholerae in aquatic environments,
  14. (2011). Acanthamoeba sp. promotes the survival and growth of Acinetobacter baumanii,
  15. (2003). Acanthamoeba spp. as agents of disease in humans,
  16. (2008). Acanthamoeba strains lose their abilities to encyst synchronously upon prolonged axenic culture,
  17. (2006). Acanthamoeba: biology and increasing importance in human health,
  18. (2007). Acanthamoeba: could it be an environmental host of Shigella?,
  19. (2000). Acid-dependent dismutation of nitrogen oxides may be a critical source of nitric oxide in human macrophages,
  20. (1990). Actin filament nucleation by the bacterial pathogen, Listeria monocytogenes,
  21. (1989). Actin filaments and the growth, movement, and spread of the intracellular bacterial parasite, Listeria monocytogenes,
  22. (2009). Activation of antibacterial autophagy by NADPH oxidases,
  23. (2011). Adaptational changes in cellular phospholipids and fatty acid composition of the food pathogen Listeria monocytogenes as a stress response to disinfectant sanitizer benzalkonium chloride,
  24. (1996). Adaptive acid tolerance response in Listeria monocytogenes: isolation of an acid-tolerant mutant which demonstrates increased virulence,
  25. (1999). Adherence of Listeria monocytogenes strains to stainless steel coupons,
  26. (1996). Aerobic and anaerobic metabolism of Listeria monocytogenes in defined glucose medium,
  27. (2010). Alteration of the phospho- or neutral lipid content and fatty acid composition in Listeria monocytogenes due to acid adaptation mechanisms for hydrochloric, acetic and lactic acids at pH 5.5 or benzoic acid at neutral pH,
  28. (2008). Altered hydrophobicity and membrane composition in stress-adapted Listeria innocua,
  29. (2010). Amoebae and algae can prolong the survival of Campylobacter species in co-culture, Experimental Parasitology.
  30. (2005). Amoebae as training grounds for intracellular bacterial pathogens,
  31. (2004). Amoebae in domestic water systems: resistance to disinfection treatments and implication in Legionella persistence,
  32. (2006). Amoebae promote persistence of epidemic strains of MRSA,
  33. (2004). Amoebae-resisting bacteria isolated from human nasal swabs by amoebal coculture,
  34. (1993). Antagonistic action of the bacterium Bacillus licheniformis M-4 toward the amoeba Naegleria fowleri,
  35. (1999). Antibiotic Resistance in Listeria spp,
  36. (2011). Antimicrobial resistance of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from food and environment in France over a 10 year period,
  37. (1992). API Listeria, a new and promising one-day system to identify Listeria isolates,
  38. (2007). Assessing biofilm formation by Listeria monocytogenes strains,
  39. (2008). ATP-induced autophagy is associated with rapid killing of intracellular mycobacteria within human monocytes/macrophages,
  40. (2008). Autophagic control of Listeria through intracellular innate immune recognition in Drosophila,
  41. (2008). Autophagosome Supports Coxsackievirus B3 Replication In Host Cells,
  42. (2009). Autophagy and pattern recognition receptors in innate immunity,
  43. (1994). Autophagy and related mechanisms of lysosome-mediated protein degradation,
  44. (2008). Autophagy and viral neurovirulence,
  45. (2006). Autophagy Controls Salmonella Infection in Response to Damage to the Salmonella-containing Vacuole,
  46. (2004). Autophagy Defends Cells Against Invading Group A Streptococcus,
  47. (2008). Autophagy fights disease through cellular self-digestion,
  48. (2004). Autophagy in Health and Disease:
  49. (2006). Autophagy in immune defense against Mycobacterium tuberculosis,
  50. (2011). Autophagy in immunity and inflammation,
  51. (2005). Autophagy in innate and adaptive immunity,
  52. (2006). Autophagy in innate immunity against intracellular bacteria,
  53. (2009). Autophagy in neurodegeneration: two sides of the same coin,
  54. (2005). Autophagy induction favours the generation and maturation of the Coxiella-replicative vacuoles,
  55. (2005). Autophagy is an immediate macrophage response to Legionella pneumophila,
  56. (2007). Autophagy limits Listeria monocytogenes intracellular growth in the early phase of primary infection,
  57. (2009). Autophagy pathway intersects with HIV-1 biosynthesis and regulates viral yields in macrophages,
  58. (2009). Autophagy-A double-edged sword in oncology,
  59. (2006). Autophagy-mediated reentry of Francisella tularensis into the endocytic compartment after cytoplasmic replication,
  60. (2009). Autophagy, immunity, and microbial adaptations,
  61. (2006). Autophagy: a highway for Porphyromonas gingivalis in endothelial cells,
  62. (2009). Autophagy: a lysosomal degradation pathway with a central role in health and disease,
  63. (2010). Autophagy: assays and artifacts,
  64. (2009). Autophagy: principles and significance in health and disease,
  65. (2008). Avoiding death by autophagy: interactions of Listeria monocytogenes with the macrophage autophagy system,
  66. (1999). Bacterial filament formation, a defense mechanism against flagellate grazing, is growth rate controlled in bacteria of different phyla,
  67. (2002). Bacterial growth in the cytosol: lessons from Listeria, Trends in
  68. (2001). Bacterial infections of free-living amoebae,
  69. (2002). Bacterial interactions with the autophagic pathway,
  70. (2000). Bacterial replication in the host cell cytosol,
  71. (2006). Bacterial–protozoa interactions; an update on the role these phenomena play towards human illness,
  72. (2000). Bactericidal efficiencies of commercial disinfectants against Listeria monocytogenes on surfaces,
  73. (2008). Basic energetic parameters of Acanthamoeba castellanii mitochondria and their resistance to oxidative stress,
  74. (2008). Biodiversity of amoebae and amoebae-resisting bacteria in a drinking water treatment plant,
  75. (2010). Biofilm formation and the food industry, a focus on the bacterial outer surface,
  76. (1998). Biofilms in Food Processing Environments,
  77. (1987). Biosynthesis of superoxide dismutase in eight prokaryotes: Effects of oxygen, paraquat and an iron chelator,
  78. (2010). Branched-chain fatty acids promote Listeria monocytogenes intracellular infection and virulence,
  79. (2004). Burkholderia cepacia complex isolates survive intracellularly without replication within acidic vacuoles of Acanthamoeba polyphaga,
  80. (1998). Ca2+/calmodulin signals the completion of docking and triggers a late step of vacuole fusion,
  81. (1975). Carbohydrate binding proteins involved in phagocytosis by
  82. (1973). Carbohydrate metabolism in Acanthamoeba castellanii. I. The activity of key enzymes and (14C)-glucose metabolism,
  83. (1997). Cell surface characteristics of Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei, Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains,
  84. (1989). Cell surface charge characteristics and their relationship to bacterial attachment to meat surfaces,
  85. (2004). Cellular autophagy: surrender, avoidance and subversion by microorganisms,
  86. (2000). Cellular morphology of rough forms of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from clinical and food samples,
  87. (2005). Changes in growth, rRNA content, and cell morphology of Listeria monocytogenes induced by CO2 up- and downshift,
  88. (2006). Changing pattern of human listeriosis, England and Wales, 2001-2004, Emerging Infectious Diseases,
  89. (1991). Characterization of physicochemical forces involved in adhesion of Listeria monocytogenes to surfaces,
  90. (1991). Chemiluminescence and superoxide production in Acanthamoeba castellanii: free radicals generated during oxidativ stress,
  91. (2006). Comparative evaluation of adhesion, surface properties, and surface protein composition of Listeria monocytogenes strains after cultivation at constant pH of 5 and 7,
  92. (2001). Comparison of Hydrogen Peroxide Contact Lens Disinfection Systems and Solutions against Acanthamoeba polyphaga,
  93. (1977). Comparison of pinocytosis and phagocytosis in Acanthamoeba castellanii,
  94. (2007). Compartmentalization of the broad-range phospholipase C activity to the spreading vacuole is critical for Listeria monocytogenes virulence,
  95. (2011). Concurrent conditions and human listeriosis,
  96. (2009). Contribution of cysteine residue to the properties of Listeria monocytogenes listeriolysin O,
  97. (2006). Control of Listeria Superoxide Dismutase by Phosphorylation,
  98. (2001). Correlations between molecular subtyping and serotyping of Listeria monocytogenes,
  99. (1993). Cowan and Steel's Manual for the Identification of Medical Bacteria, 3rd ed., Cambridge, United Kingdom:
  100. (2001). Cryptococcus neoformans interactions with amoebae suggest an explanation for its virulence and intracellular pathogenic strategy in macrophages,
  101. (2002). Cultivation of Pathogenic and Opportunistic Free-Living Amebas,
  102. (2006). Cytolysin-dependent delay of vacuole maturation in macrophages infected with Listeria monocytogenes,
  103. (2003). Cytoplasmic bacteria can be targets for autophagy,
  104. (2009). Damage targeted to the mitochondrial interior induces autophagy, cell cycle arrest and, only at high doses, apoptosis,
  105. (1996). De novo synthesis of Legionella pneumophila antigens during intracellular growth in phagocytic cells,
  106. (2002). Determinants of the phagosomal pH in neutrophils,
  107. (2004). Development by self-digestion: molecular mechanisms and biological functions of autophagy,
  108. (1976). Differences in destruction of cysts of pathogenic and nonpathogenic Naegleria and Acanthamoeba by chlorine,
  109. (2007). Differential function of Listeria monocytogenes listeriolysin O and phospholipases C in vacuolar dissolution following cell-to-cell spread,
  110. (1990). Differential rates of digestion of bacteria by freshwater and marine phagotrophic protozoa,
  111. (1976). Differentiation in Acanthamoeba castellanii,
  112. (1984). Differentiation of pathogeneic amoebae:encystation and excystation of Acanthamoeba culbertsoni-A model,
  113. (2008). Digest this! A role for autophagy in controlling pathogens,
  114. (1999). Dissemination of Listeria monocytogenes by Infected Phagocytes,
  115. (1990). Distribution of serovars of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from different categories of patients with listeriosis,
  116. (2003). Drosophila S2 cells: an alternative infection model for Listeria monocytogenes,
  117. (2010). Dual Role of 3-Methyladenine in Modulation of Autophagy via Different Temporal Patterns of Inhibition on Class I and III Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase,
  118. (1996). E-cadherin is the receptor for internalin, a surface protein required for entry of Listeria monocytogenes into epithelial cells,
  119. (2008). Eating for good health: linking autophagy and phagocytosis in host defense,
  120. (2005). Eating oneself and uninvited guests: autophagy-related pathways in cellular defense,
  121. (2009). Eating the enemy within: autophagy in infectious diseases,
  122. (1994). Ecology of free-living amoebae,
  123. (1997). Effect of bacteria on survival and growth of Acanthamoeba castellanii,
  124. (1990). Effect of growth rate and hydrophobicity on bacteria surviving protozoan grazing,
  125. (2009). Effect of Helicobacter pylori's vacuolating cytotoxin on the autophagy pathway in gastric epithelial cells,
  126. (1992). Effect of macrophage activation on killing of Listeria monocytogenes. Roles of reactive oxygen or nitrogen intermediates, rate of phagocytosis, and retention of bacteria in endosomes,
  127. (1998). Effect of protozoan predation on relative abundance of fast- and slow-growing bacteria,
  128. (1997). Effect of saline concentration, pH and growth temperature on the invasive capacity of Listeria monocytogenes,
  129. (1998). Effects of above-optimum growth temperature and cell morphology on thermotolerance of Listeria monocytogenes cells suspended in bovine milk,
  130. (1993). Effects of glucose, growth temperature, and pH on listeriolysin O production in Listeria monocytogenes,
  131. (1993). Effects of Grazing by the Free-Living Soil Amoebae Acanthamoeba castellanii, Acanthamoeba polyphaga, and Hartmannella vermiformis on Various Bacteria,
  132. (2006). Effects of physicochemical surface characteristics of Listeria monocytogenes strains on attachment to glass,
  133. (1996). Effects of protozoa on carbon mineralization in activated sludge,
  134. (2001). Effects of trimethoprim and co-trimoxazole on the morphology of Listeria monocytogenes in culture medium and after phagocytosis,
  135. (2010). Elongated cells of Listeria monocytogenes in biofilms in the presence of sucrose and bacteriocin-producing
  136. (1992). Enhanced bacterial metabolism of a Pseudomonas strain in response to the addition of culture filtrate of a bacteriophagous amoeba,
  137. (2007). Enhanced killing of intracellular multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis by compounds that affect the activity of efflux pumps,
  138. (2007). Environmental predators as models for bacterial pathogenesis,
  139. (1991). Epidemiology of human listeriosis,
  140. (2006). Escherichia coli interactions with Acanthamoeba: a symbiosis with environmental and clinical implications,
  141. (2010). Evidence for the involvement of ActA in maturation of the Listeria monocytogenes phagosome,
  142. (2006). Evidence that cyclic nucleotides and vacuole subpopulations respectively control rate and the extent of vacuole fusion in Acanthamoeba homogenates.,
  143. (2008). Evolution of Intracellular Pathogens,
  144. (1972). Exocytosis of latex beads during the encystment of Acanthamoeba,
  145. (2003). Experimental Validation of Low Virulence in Field Strains of Listeria monocytogenes,
  146. (2003). Exploration of host-pathogen interactions using Listeria monocytogenes and Drosophila melanogaster,
  147. (2006). Exposure to salt and organic acids increases the ability of Listeria monocytogenes to invade Caco-2 cells but decreases its ability to survive gastric stress,
  148. (1988). Expression in Escherichia coli and sequence analysis of the listeriolysin O determinant of Listeria monocytogenes,
  149. (2011). Expression levels of encystation mediating factors in fresh strain of Acanthamoeba castellanii cyst ESTs,
  150. (1994). Expression of superoxide dismutase in Listeria monocytogenes,
  151. (1994). Fate of Listeria monocytogenes in murine macrophages: evidence for simultaneous killing and survival of intracellular bacteria,
  152. (1981). Fate of Listeria monocytogenes in resident and activated macrophages,
  153. (2009). Fatty acid profiling and proteomic analysis of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium inactivated with supercritical carbon dioxide,
  154. (2004). FbpA, a novel multifunctional Listeria monocytogenes virulence factor,
  155. (2006). Feeding Characteristics of an Amoeba (Naegleria) Grazing Upon Cyanobacteria: Food Selection, Ingestion and Digestion Progress,
  156. (1995). Filament formation in Listeria monocytogenes,
  157. (2007). Flagellar motility is critical for Listeria monocytogenes biofilm formation,
  158. (1999). Food-related illness and death in the United States, Emerging Infectious Diseases,
  159. (1993). Free-living Amoeba: Interactions with environmental pathogenic bacteria,
  160. (2010). Free-living amoebae and their intracellular pathogenic microorganisms: risks for water quality,
  161. (2009). Free-living amoebae as agents of human infection,
  162. (2004). Free-living amoebae as opportunistic and non-opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals,
  163. (2002). Free-living amoebae promote growth and survival of Helicobacter pylori,
  164. (1999). Free-living amoebae protecting Legionella in water: the tip of an iceberg?,
  165. (2009). Free-living amoebae, a training field for macrophage resistance of mycobacteria,
  166. (2009). Free-living freshwater amoebae differ in their susceptibility to the pathogenic bacterium Legionella pneumophila,
  167. (2010). From Grazing Resistance to Pathogenesis: The Coincidental Evolution of Virulence Factors,
  168. (2000). From protozoa to mammalian cells: a new paradigm in the life cycle of intracellular bacterial pathogens.
  169. (1989). Gamma interferon induces monocyte killing of Listeria monocytogenes by an oxygen-dependent pathway; alpha- or beta-interferons by oxygenindependent pathways,
  170. (1989). Gamma interferon limits access of Listeria monocytogenes to the macrophage cytoplasm,
  171. (2000). Growth of Listeria monocytogenes and Yersinia enterocolitica colonies under modified atmospheres at 4 and 8 °C using a model food system,
  172. (2008). Growth, encystment and survival of Acanthamoeba castellanii grazing on different bacteria,
  173. (2002). Growth, morphology and surface propertiesof Listeria monocytogenes Scott A and LO28 under saline and acid environments,
  174. (1979). Growth, reproduction, and differentiation in Acanthamoeba,
  175. (2008). Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy in higher eukaryotes,
  176. (1998). Heat Resistance and Fatty Acid Composition of Listeria monocytogenes: Effect of pH, Acidulant, and Growth Temperature,
  177. (2008). Heavy-Metal and Benzalkonium Chloride Resistance of Listeria monocytogenes Isolates from the Environment of Turkey-Processing Plants,
  178. (2003). History and epidemiology of listeriosis,
  179. (2009). Host cell autophagy is induced by Toxoplasma gondii and contributes to parasite growth,
  180. (1997). Host-pathogen interactions during entry and actinbased movement of Listeria monocytogenes
  181. (1998). How is the intracellular fate of the Legionella pneumophila phagosome determined?,
  182. (2006). How the bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes mediates the switch from environmental Dr. Jekyll to pathogenic Mr. Hyde, Infection and Immunity,
  183. (2010). Human listeriosis caused by Listeria ivanovii, Emerging Infectious Diseases,
  184. (2010). Human listeriosis in England, 2001-2007: association with neighbourhood deprivation,
  185. (2004). Human Listeriosis Outbreaks Linked to Dairy Products in Europe,
  186. (2008). Human macrophage host defense against Mycobacterium tuberculosis,
  187. (2001). Identification of a PEST-like motif in listeriolysin O required for phagosomal escape and for virulence in Listeria monocytogenes,
  188. (2006). Identification of Listeria monocytogenes genes contributing to intracellular replication by expression profiling and mutant screening,
  189. (2006). Identification of the Insulin-Like Growth Factor II Receptor as a Novel Receptor for Binding and Invasion by Listeria monocytogenes,
  190. (1999). IL-12 is dispensable for innate and adaptive immunity against low doses of Listeria monocytogenes,
  191. (2007). Impact of protozoan grazing on nitrification and the ammonia- and nitrite-oxidizing bacterial communities in activated sludge,
  192. (2009). Implications of autophagy in anthrax pathogenicity,
  193. (2009). Induction of autophagy by anthrax lethal toxin,
  194. (2009). Induction of autophagy correlates with increased parasite load of Leishmania amazonensis in BALB/c but not C57BL/6 macrophages,
  195. (2008). Induction of autophagy via innate bacterial recognition,
  196. (2008). Induction of incomplete autophagic response by hepatitis C virus via the unfolded protein response,
  197. (1997). Infection of Acanthamoeba castellanii by Chlamydia pneumoniae,
  198. (2001). Infection of Acanthamoeba polyphaga with Simkania negevensis and S. negevensis survival within amoebal cysts,
  199. (1996). Influence of environmental
  200. (1993). Influence of intra-amoebic and other growth conditions on the surface properties of Legionella pneumophila,
  201. (2008). Influence of temperature on biofilm formation by Listeria monocytogenes on various food-contact surfaces: relationship with motility and cell surface hydrophobicity,
  202. (1990). Ingested Listeria monocytogenes survive and multiply in protozoa,
  203. (2004). Inhibition of autophagy with 3-methyladenine results in impaired turnover of lysosomes and accumulation of lipofuscin-like material,
  204. (2011). Innate immune recognition and inflammasome activation in Listeria monocytogenes infection,
  205. (2006). Interaction between Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and environmental protozoa,
  206. (2010). Interaction between Vibrio mimicus and Acanthamoeba castellanii,
  207. (2004). Interaction of Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2 with the host autophagic pathway,
  208. (1983). Interaction of L. pneumophilia and a free living amoeba (Acanthamoeba palestinensis),
  209. (1996). Interaction of Legionella pneumophila with Acanthamoeba castellanii: uptake by coiling phagocytosis and inhibition of phagosome-lysosome fusion,
  210. (1998). Interaction of Listeria monocytogenes with Human Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells: InlB-Dependent Invasion, LongTerm Intracellular Growth, and Spread from Macrophages to Endothelial Cells, Infection and Immunity,
  211. (1997). Interaction of Mycobacterium avium with environmental amoebae enhances virulence,
  212. (2007). Interactions between Mycobacterium xenopi, amoeba and human cells,
  213. (2007). Interactions between the environmental pathogen Listeria monocytogenes and a free-living protozoan (Acanthamoeba castellanii),
  214. (1999). Interactions of "Limax amoebae" and gram-negative bacteria: experimental studies and review of current problems,
  215. (1998). Interactions of Listeria monocytogenes with mammalian cells during entry and actin-based movement: bacterial factors, cellular ligands and signaling,
  216. (1990). Interactions of Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria seeligeri, and Listeria innocua with protozoans,
  217. (2008). Interactions of some common pathogenic bacteria with Acanthamoeba polyphaga,
  218. (2006). Intracellular Gene Expression Profile of Listeria monocytogenes,
  219. (1995). Intracellular killing of Listeria monocytogenes in the J774.1 macrophage-like cell line and the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-resistant mutant LPS1916 cell line defective in the generation of reactive oxygen intermediates after LPS treatment,
  220. (2004). Intracellular multiplication of Legionella species and the influence of amoebae on their intracellular growth in human monocytes: mono mac 6 cells and Acanthamoeba castellanii as suitable in vitro models,
  221. (1999). Intracellular survival and saprophytic growth of isolates from the Burkholderia cepacia complex in free-living amoebae,
  222. (1995). Intraphagocytic growth induces an antibiotic-resistant phenotype of Legionella pneumophila,
  223. (2004). Introductory Remarks: Bacterial Endosymbionts or Pathogens of Free-Living Amebae,
  224. (2006). Invasion assay of Listeria monocytogenes using Vero and Caco-2 cells,
  225. (2003). Invasion of mammalian cells by Listeria monocytogenes: functional mimicry to subvert cellular functions,
  226. (2008). Is mitochondrial generation of reactive oxygen species a trigger for autophagy?,
  227. (1984). Legionella pneumophila inhibits acidification of its phagosome in human monocytes,
  228. (2000). Legionella pneumophila pathogesesis: a fateful journey from amoebae to macrophages,
  229. (2006). Lipid metabolism and dynamics during phagocytosis,
  230. (1994). Listeria ivanovii infection in a patient with AIDS,
  231. (1994). Listeria ivanovii infection,
  232. (2009). Listeria monocytogenes ActA is a key player in evading autophagic recognition,
  233. (2008). Listeria monocytogenes BiofilmAssociated Protein (BapL) May Contribute to Surface Attachment of L. monocytogenes but Is Absent from Many Field Isolates,
  234. (2010). Listeria monocytogenes does not survive ingestion by Acanthamoeba polyphaga,
  235. (2007). Listeria monocytogenes Evades Killing by Autophagy During Colonization of Host Cells,
  236. (1999). Listeria monocytogenes Exploits Normal Host Cell Processes to Spread from Cell to Cell✪,
  237. (2006). Listeria monocytogenes flagella are used for motility, not as adhesins, to increase host cell invasion,
  238. (2006). Listeria monocytogenes in Multiple Habitats and Host Populations: Review of Available Data for Mathematical Modeling, Foodborne Pathogens and Disease,
  239. (2009). Listeria monocytogenes infection in the face of innate immunity,
  240. (2009). Listeria monocytogenes membrane trafficking and lifestyle: the exception or the rule?,
  241. (1990). Listeria Monocytogenes Moves Rapidly Through the Host-Cell Cytoplasm by Inducing Directional Actin Assembly,
  242. (1999). Listeria monocytogenes Scott A: Cell Surface Charge, Hydrophobicity,
  243. (2002). Listeria monocytogenes Virulence and Pathogenicity, a Food Safety Perspective,
  244. (2010). Listeria monocytogenes virulence factor Listeriolysin O favors bacterial growth in co-culture with the ciliate Tetrahymena pyriformis, causes protozoan encystment and promotes bacterial survival inside cysts,
  245. (1998). Listeria monocytogenes Virulence Factors That Stimulate Endothelial Cells, Infection and Immunity,
  246. (1991). Listeria monocytogenes, a food-borne pathogen,
  247. (2008). Listeria monocytogenes, a unique model in infection biology: an overview,
  248. (2006). Listeria monocytogenes: a multifaceted model,
  249. (2004). Listeria monocytogenes: biofilm formation and persistence in food-processing environments,
  250. (2008). Listeria monocytogenes: epidemiology, human disease, and mechanisms of brain invasion,
  251. (2006). Listeria monocytogenes: food-borne pathogen and hygiene indicator,
  252. (2001). Listeria pathogenesis and molecular virulence determinants,
  253. (2007). Listeria: A foodborne pathogen that knows how to survive,
  254. (2008). Listeriolysin O allows Listeria monocytogenes replication in macrophage vacuoles,
  255. (2002). Listeriolysin O: a genuine cytolysin optimized for an intracellular parasite,
  256. (2006). Listeriolysin O: a key protein of Listeria monocytogenes with multiple functions,
  257. (2008). Listeriosis in Pregnancy,
  258. (2003). Localized Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Intermediates Inhibit Escape of Listeria monocytogenes from Vacuoles in Activated Macrophages,
  259. (2006). Low virulence but potentially fatal outcome-Listeria ivanovii,
  260. (2004). Macroautophagy is dispensable for intracellular replication of Legionella pneumophila in Dictyostelium discoideum,
  261. (2005). Macrophages rapidly transfer pathogens from lipid raft vacuoles to autophagosomes,
  262. (2004). Manganese and its compounds: Environmental aspects.
  263. (2005). Maturation of autophagic vacuoles in Mammalian cells,
  264. (2009). Mechanism involved in phagocytosis and killing of Listeria monocytogenes by Acanthamoeba polyphaga,
  265. (1980). Mechanism of phagocytosis in Dictyostelium discoideum: phagocytosis is mediated by different recognition sites as disclosed by mutants with altered phagocytotic properties,
  266. (2005). Mechanisms associated with Acanthamoeba castellanii (T4) phagocytosis,
  267. (2001). Mechanisms of biofilm resistance to antimicrobial agents,
  268. (1978). Mechanisms of persistence of low numbers of bacteria preyed upon by protozoa,
  269. (1996). Mechanisms of phagocytosis,
  270. (2006). Membrane perforations inhibit lysosome fusion by altering pH and calcium in Listeria monocytogenes vacuoles,
  271. (2004). Methods for monitoring autophagy,
  272. (2010). Methods in mammalian autophagy research,
  273. (2001). Microinjection and growth of bacteria in the cytosol of mammalian host cells,
  274. (2004). Microorganisms Resistant to Free-Living Amoebae,
  275. (2007). Mitochondrial electron-transport-chain inhibitors of complexes I and II induce autophagic cell death mediated by reactive oxygen species,
  276. (2005). Molecular basis of listeriolysin O pH dependence,
  277. (2004). Molecular determinants of Listeria monocytogenes Virulence,
  278. (2009). Monitoring autophagy by electron microscopy in Mammalian cells,
  279. (2009). Monitoring starvation-induced reactive oxygen species formation,
  280. (2001). Morphological and physiological characterization of Listeria monocytogenes subjected to high hydrostatic pressure,
  281. (2007). Morphological changes in Listeria monocytogenes subjected to sublethal alkaline stress,
  282. (2002). Morphology and dynamics of the endocytic pathway in Dictyostelium discoideum,
  283. (2004). Morphotypic Conversion in Listeria monocytogenes Biofilm Formation:
  284. (2006). Mouse infection by Legionella, a model to analyze autophagy,
  285. (2008). Multiple Factors Affecting Growth and Encystment of Acanthamoeba castellanii in Axenic Culture.
  286. (1993). Multiplication of Listeria monocytogenes in a murine hepatocyte cell line,
  287. (1998). Mycobacterium avium bacilli grow saprozoically in coculture with Acanthamoeba polyphaga and survive within cyst walls,
  288. (2000). Mycobacterium avium grown in Acanthamoeba castellanii is protected from the effects of antimicrobials,
  289. (2009). NADPH oxidases contribute to autophagy regulation,
  290. (2006). Nationwide outbreak of listeriosis due to contaminated meat,
  291. (2005). Nitrification in actiated sludge batch reactors is linked to protozoan grazing of the bacterial population,
  292. (1981). Nitrogen Mineralization by Acanthamoeba polyphaga in Grazed Pseudomonas paucimobilis Populations,
  293. (1993). Occurrence of bacterial endosymbionts in Acanthamoeba spp. isolated from corneal and environmental specimens and contact lenses,
  294. (2001). Occurrence of Listeria species in raw milk in farms on the outskirts of Mexico City,
  295. (2005). Off the hook--how bacteria survive protozoan grazing,
  296. (1984). Oxidants from phagocytes: agents of defense and destruction,
  297. (1985). Oxidative Metabolism Associated with Phagocytosis in Acanthamoeba castellanii,
  298. (2008). Pathogen–pathogen interactions: a comparative study of Escherichia coli interactions with the clinical and environmental isolates of Acanthamoeba,
  299. (2007). Pathogenic and opportunistic free-living amoebae: Acanthamoeba spp., Balamuthia mandrillaris, Naegleria fowleri, and Sappinia diploidea,
  300. (2001). Pathogenicity, morphology, and differentiation of Acanthamoeba,
  301. (1988). Peristance of bacteria in the presence of viable, nonencysting, bacterivorous ciliates,
  302. (2008). Perturbation of autophagic pathway by hepatitis C virus,
  303. (2009). Perturbation of vacuolar maturation promotes listeriolysin O-independent vacuolar escape during Listeria monocytogenes infection of human cells,
  304. (1997). pH-dependent perforation of macrophage phagosomes by listeriolysin O from Listeria monocytogenes,
  305. (2001). Phagocytosis and macropinocytosis in Dictyostelium: phosphoinositide-based processes, biochemically distinct,
  306. (1976). Phagocytosis and pinocytosis in Acanthamoeba castellanii,
  307. (1990). Phagocytosis in Acanthamoeba: II. Soluble and Insoluble Mannose-Rich Ligands Stimulate Phosphoinositide Metabolism,
  308. (2009). Phagocytosis of bacteria is enhanced in macrophages undergoing nutrient deprivation,
  309. (1987). Phagocytosis recognition mechanisms in human granulocytes and Acanthamoeba castellanii using type 1 fimbriated Escherichia coli as phagocytic prey,
  310. (1990). Phagosomal acidification is mediated by a vacuolar-type H(+)-ATPase in murine macrophages,
  311. (2000). Phagosome Acidification Has Opposite Effects on
  312. (2002). Phagosome maturation: aging gracefully,
  313. (1996). Phagosome-lysosome fusion is a calcium-independent event in macrophages,
  314. (1971). Plasma and phagosome membranes of Acanthamoeba castellanii,
  315. (1980). Pontiac Fever and Amoebae,
  316. (2005). Porins limit the intracellular persistence of Mycobacterium smegmatis,
  317. (2001). Porphyromonas gingivalis Traffics to Autophagosomes in Human Coronary Artery Endothelial Cells,
  318. (1987). Potential use of continuous cell lines to distinguish between pathogenic and nonpathogenic Listeria spp,
  319. (2002). Predation as a shaping force for the phenotypic and genotypic composition of planktonic bacteria,
  320. (2008). Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Listeria spp. in homemade white cheese,
  321. (1978). Properties of mitochondria isolated from cyanidesensitive and cyanide-stimulated cultures of Acanthamoeba castellanii,
  322. (2007). Protective role of autophagy against Vibrio cholerae cytolysin, a pore-forming toxin from V. cholerae,
  323. (2000). Proteins variations in Listeria monocytogenes exposed to high salinities,
  324. (2005). Protozoan Acanthamoeba polyphaga as a Potential Reservoir for Campylobacter jejuni,
  325. (2005). Protozoan grazing and its impact upon population dynamics in biofilm communities,
  326. (2006). Protozoan Grazing Increases Mineralization
  327. (1981). Protozoan grazing of bacteria in soil—impact and importance,
  328. (2004). Protozoan grazing of freshwater biofilms,
  329. (1990). Protozoan grazing on Planktonic bacteria and its impact on bacterial population,
  330. (2004). Protozoan predation, diversifying selection, and the evolution of antigenic diversity
  331. (1990). Pyoverdin-facilitated iron uptake in Pseudomonas aeruginosa: immunological characterization of the ferripyoverdin receptor,
  332. (1995). Quantification and Characterization of Phagocytosis in the Soil Amoeba Acanthamoeba castellanii by Flow Cytometry,
  333. (1988). Rates of digestion of bacteria by marine phagotrophic protozoa: temperature dependence,
  334. (2007). Reactive oxygen species are essential for autophagy and specifically regulate the activity of Atg4,
  335. (2007). Reactive oxygen species regulate autophagy through redox-sensitive proteases,
  336. (2004). Recognition of bacteria in the cytosol of Mammalian cells by the ubiquitin system,
  337. (2006). Regulated translation of listeriolysin O controls virulence of Listeria monocytogenes,
  338. (2011). Regulation of autophagy by ROS: physiology and pathology,
  339. (1993). Regulation of the prfA transcriptional activator of Listeria monocytogenes: multiple promoter elements contribute to intracellular growth and cell-to-cell spread,
  340. (2010). Relation between Serotype Distribution and Antibiotic Resistance Profiles of Listeria monocytogenes Isolated from Ground Turkey,
  341. (1992). Relationship between Legionella pneumophila and Acanthamoeba polyphaga: physiological status and susceptibility to chemical inactivation,
  342. (1994). Relationship between phagosome acidification, phagosome-lysosome fusion, and mechanism of particle ingestion,
  343. (1979). Relationship between superoxide dismutase and pathogenic mechanisms of Listeria monocytogenes,
  344. (2006). Replication and long-term persistence of bovine and human strains of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis within Acanthamoeba polyphaga,
  345. (2010). Resistance of Acanthamoeba Cysts to Disinfection Treatments Used in Health Care Settings,
  346. (1977). Resistance of cysts of amoebae to microbial decomposition,
  347. (2006). Resistance of Listeria monocytogenes biofilms to sanitizing agents in a simulated food processing environment,
  348. (1999). Respiratory burst in human neutrophils,
  349. (2011). Review -- Persistence of Listeria monocytogenes in food industry equipment and premises,
  350. (2005). Role of contact lens wear, bacterial flora, and mannose-induced pathogenic protease in the pathogenesis of amoebic keratitis,
  351. (2003). Role of ctc from Listeria monocytogenes in Osmotolerance,
  352. (1988). Role of hemolysin for the intracellular growth of Listeria monocytogenes,
  353. (2000). Role of Listeriolysin O in Cell-to-Cell Spread of Listeria monocytogenes,
  354. (2007). ROS, mitochondria and the regulation of autophagy,
  355. (1941). Selectivity in bacterial food by soil amoebae in pure mixed culture and in sterilized soil,
  356. (1995). Speculations on the influence of infecting phenotype on virulence and antibiotic susceptibility of Legionella pneumophila,
  357. (2007). Staphylococcus aureus subvert autophagy for induction of caspase-independent host cell death,
  358. (2006). Statistical analysis of inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes subjected to high hydrostatic pressure and heat in milk buffer,
  359. (1985). Sterol biosynthesis de novo via cycloartenol by the soil amoeba Acanthamoeba polyphaga
  360. (2008). Stimulation of autophagy suppresses the intracellular survival of Burkholderia pseudomallei in mammalian cell lines,
  361. (1997). Structure of a Cholesterol-Binding, Thiol-Activated Cytolysin and a Model of Its Membrane Form,
  362. (1993). Studies on the inhibitory mechanism of iodonium compounds with special reference to neutrophil NADPH oxidase,
  363. (2009). Studies on the susceptibility of different culture morphotypes of Listeria monocytogenes to uptake and survival in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes,
  364. (2006). Study on the growth of Vibrio cholerae O139 within Acanthamoeba polyphaga and its survival in the cysts in low temperature, Zhonghua liu xing bing xue za zhi
  365. (2006). Subversion of cellular functions by Listeria monocytogenes,
  366. (2005). Suitability of Recombinant Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas putida Strains for Selective Biotransformation of mNitrotoluene by Xylene Monooxygenase,
  367. (1991). Superoxide generation during phagocytosis by Acanthamoeba castellanii: similarities to the respiratory burst of immune phagocytes,
  368. (2009). Superoxide is the major reactive oxygen species regulating autophagy,
  369. (1975). Superoxide production by phagocytic leukocytes,
  370. (2005). Surface Attachment of Listeria monocytogenes Is Induced by Sublethal Concentrations of Alcohol at Low Temperatures,
  371. (2003). Survival and growth of Francisella tularensis in Acanthamoeba castellanii,
  372. (2008). Survival of Acanthamoeba cysts after desiccation for more than 20 years,
  373. (1988). Survival of coliforms and bacterial pathogens within protozoa during chlorination,
  374. (2001). Survival of Coxiella burnetii within free-living amoeba Acanthamoeba castellanii,
  375. (2006). Survival of environmental mycobacteria in Acanthamoeba polyphaga,
  376. (1990). Survival of Legionella pneumophila within cysts of Acanthamoeba polyphaga following chlorine exposure,
  377. (2010). Surviving within the amoebal exocyst: the Mycobacterium avium complex paradigm,
  378. (2010). Synergistic effects of sodium chloride, glucose, and temperature on biofilm formation by Listeria monocytogenes serotype 1/2a and 4b strains,
  379. (1988). Taxonomy of the genus Listeria, Infection,
  380. (1990). Temperature shift effects on injury and death in Listeria monocytogenes Scott A,
  381. (2008). TemperatureDependent Parasitic Relationship between Legionella pneumophila and a FreeLiving Amoeba (Acanthamoeba castellanii),
  382. (2009). The ability of Listeria monocytogenes PI-PLC to facilitate escape from the macrophage phagosome is dependent on host PKCbeta,
  383. (1997). The Autophagic and Endocytic Pathways Converge at the Nascent Autophagic Vacuoles,
  384. (2007). The autophagic pathway is actively modulated by phase II Coxiella burnetii to efficiently replicate in the host cell,
  385. (2007). The autophagic pathway: a cell survival strategy against the bacterial pore-forming toxin Vibrio cholerae cytolysin,
  386. (2009). The bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes: an emerging model in prokaryotic transcriptomics,
  387. (2010). The behaviour of both Listeria monocytogenes and rat ciliated ependymal cells is altered during their co-culture,
  388. (2011). The Burkholderia pseudomallei Type III Secretion System and BopA Are Required for Evasion of LC3-Associated Phagocytosis,
  389. (1998). The ClpC ATPase of Listeria monocytogenes is a general stress protein required for virulence and promoting early bacterial escape from the phagosome of macrophages,
  390. (1999). The convergent point of the endocytic and autophagic pathways in leydig cells,
  391. (2005). The Dps-like protein Fri of Listeria monocytogenes promotes stress tolerance and intracellular multiplication in macrophage-like cells,
  392. (1979). The effect of inhibitors on the oxygen kinetics of terminal oxidases of Acanthamoeba castellanii,
  393. (1973). The effect of NaCl on the morphology of Listeria monocytogenes, Zentralblatt fur Bakteriologie, Parasitenkunde, Infektionskrankheiten und Hygiene.Erste Abteilung Originale.Reihe A: Medizinische Mikrobiologie und Parasitologie,
  394. (1995). The effect of osmotic shock and subsequent adaptation on the thermotolerance and cell morphology of Listeria monocytogenes,
  395. (2007). The epidemiology of human listeriosis,
  396. (1991). The Epidemiology of Listeriosis in the United States--1986,
  397. (1992). The expression of virulence genes in Listeria monocytogenes is thermoregulated,
  398. (2010). The fine structure of the Acanthamoeba polyphaga cyst wall,
  399. (2000). The growth and resistance to sodium hypochlorite of Listeria monocytogenes in a steady-state multispecies biofilm,
  400. (2000). The Haber-Weiss reaction and mechanisms of toxicity,
  401. (2007). The heat-shock response of Listeria monocytogenes comprises genes involved in heat shock, cell division, cell wall synthesis, and the SOS response,
  402. (1950). The Influence of the Bacterial Environment on the Excystment of Amoebae from Soil,
  403. (1987). The inhibition by diphenyleneiodonium and its analogues of superoxide generation by macrophages,
  404. (1998). The InlB protein of Listeria monocytogenes is sufficient to promote entry into mammalian cells,
  405. (2005). The Kinetics of Phagosome Maturation as a Function of Phagosome/Lysosome Fusion and Acquisition of Hydrolytic Activity,
  406. (2009). The Legionella pneumophila replication vacuole: making a cosy niche inside host cells,
  407. (2005). The nature of the phagosomal membrane: endoplasmic reticulum versus plasmalemma,
  408. (1982). The occurrence of Listeria monocytogenes in surface water of canals and lakes, in ditches of one big polder and in the effluents and canals of a sewage treatment plant, Zentralblatt fur Bakteriologie Mikrobiologie Hygiene[B],
  409. (2007). The Phagosome: Compartment with a License to Kill,
  410. (2005). The pleiotropic role of autophagy: from protein metabolism to bactericide, Cell Death and Differentiation,
  411. (2002). The regulation of phagosome maturation in Dictyostelium,
  412. (1985). The respiratory burst of phagocytosis: Biochemistry and subcellular localization,
  413. (1987). The role of bacterial cell wall hydrophobicity in adhesion,
  414. (2000). The Role of Intraorganellar Ca2+ in Late Endosome-Lysosome Heterotypic Fusion and in the Reformation of Lysosomes from Hybrid Organelles,
  415. (2007). The role of the activated macrophage in clearing Listeria monocytogenes infection,
  416. (1989). The thiol-activated toxin streptolysin O does not require a thiol group for cytolytic activity,
  417. (1995). The two distinct phospholipases C of Listeria monocytogenes have overlapping roles in escape from a vacuole and cell-to-cell spread,
  418. (2000). The versatility and universality of calcium signalling,
  419. (2000). Thiol-activated cytolysins: structure, function and role in pathogenesis,
  420. (1998). Tissue culture assays using Caco-2 cell line differentiate virulent from non-virulent Listeria monocytogenes strains,
  421. (2008). To be or not to be? Examples of incorrect identification of autophagic compartments in conventional transmission electron microscopy of mammalian cells,
  422. (1996). Transcriptional activation of virulence genes in wild-type strains of Listeria monocytogenes in response to a change in the extracellular medium composition,
  423. (1994). Trojan horses of the microbial world: protozoa and the survival of bacterial pathogens in the environment,
  424. (2001). Trypan blue exclusion test of cell viability,
  425. (1994). Ultrastructural study of Listeria monocytogenes entry into cultured human colonic epithelial cells,
  426. (1999). Unexplored reservoirs of pathogenic bacteria: protozoa and biofilms,
  427. (2004). Uptake and replication of Salmonella enterica in Acanthamoeba rhysodes,
  428. (2003). Use of 18S rRNA genebased PCR assay for diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis in non-contact lens wearers in India,
  429. (1997). Utilization of similar mechanisms by Legionella pneumophila to parasitize two evolutionarily distant host cells, mammalian macrophages and protozoa,
  430. (2006). Vacuolar and plasma membrane stripping and autophagic elimination of Toxoplasma gondii in primed effector macrophages,
  431. (2010). Variability of Listeria monocytogenes virulence: a result of the evolution between saprophytism and virulence?,
  432. (2003). Variation in Biofilm Formation among Strains of Listeria monocytogenes,
  433. (2009). Viability of Listeria monocytogenes in co-culture with Acanthamoeba spp,
  434. (1988). Virulence of Listeria spp.: course of infection in resistant and susceptible mice,
  435. (2000). Virulent rough filaments of Listeria monocytogenes from clinical and food samples secreting wild-type levels of cell-free p60 protein,
  436. (1981). Why Microbial Predators and Parasites do not Eliminate their Prey and Hosts,
  437. (2008). Xenophagy in herpes simplex virus replication and pathogenesis,

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.