Skip to main content
Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

Explosive ocean-island volcanism: the 1.8–0.7 Ma explosive eruption history of Cañadas volcano recorded by the pyroclastic successions around Adeje and Abona, southern Tenerife, Canary Islands

By Pablo Dávila Harris

Abstract

The 1.8 to 0.7 Ma explosive eruption history of Las Cañadas volcano is recorded by\ud the pyroclastic stratigraphy of southern Tenerife. A large pyroclastic apron is well\ud exposed in the Bandas del Sur. It is divided into two regions, Adeje (southwest) and\ud Abona (southeast). The lower stratigraphy of both successions is described here for\ud the first time, and is divided into soil-bound eruption-units. The lithofacies record\ud repeated phonolite explosive eruptions involving Plinian eruption columns and\ud ignimbrite emplacement, with sedimentary reworking and soilification during repose\ud intervals. The southwestern pyroclastic apron of Cañadas, around Adeje, includes eleven\ud eruption-units, with one explosive eruption every 24,300–31,200 years. Two major\ud unconformities are identified in this region, each representing ~0.6 myr hiatuses. The\ud southeastern pyroclastic apron, around Abona, reveals nine newly discovered\ud phonolitic eruption-units, eight of which are dated by 40Ar/39Ar. The eruptions span\ud 1.6 Ma, and occurred with frequencies averaging one per 21,000 years to one per\ud 79,556 years. The deposits include welded and non-welded ignimbrites and\ud numerous fallout layers. Documentation of the ‘lower’ Bandas del Sur Group allows\ud the entire pyroclastic record of southeast Tenerife to be constrained for the first time:\ud over 18 explosive eruptions occurred during the past 1.6 myr, of which 7 may have\ud been caldera-forming. Eruption frequencies cluster and are separated by\ud unconformities that span from 184,000–563,000 years. A debris-avalanche deposit was discovered on the southeast flank of Cañadas. It\ud records a catastrophic landslide, the Abona landslide, triggered by a phonolite\ud explosive eruption 735 ± 5 ka ago. The Abona debris-avalanche deposit is enclosed\ud between pyroclastic units of the Helecho Formation, and represents a single eruptionunit.\ud Debris avalanche block and mixed facies, and a hummocky topography that\ud dammed small ephemeral perched lakes, are exceptionally well-preserved. Limited\ud disruption and mixing, and a general absence of clast segregation within the deposit,\ud indicate that the landslide did not move as a rapid granular flow. The debris-block\ud characteristics indicate that pervasive shattering and microbrecciation occurred\ud progressively during transport, and were accompanied by limited shear, mixing and\ud substrate erosion during predominantly laminar emplacement of a dilated, but\ud essentially solid, shearing mass. The deposit is the only precisely dated giant\ud landslide on Tenerife and provides the first unequivocal evidence of an eruption\ud trigger on an ocean-island volcano

Publisher: University of Leicester
Year: 2009
OAI identifier: oai:lra.le.ac.uk:2381/9931

Suggested articles

Citations

  1. (2001). (2001).The flow of giant rock landslides. In: doi
  2. (2002). 40Ar/39Ar stratigraphy of pyroclastic units from the Cañadas Volcanic Edifice (Tenerife, Canary Islands) and their bearing on the structural evolution. doi
  3. (1986). A chemical classification of volcanic rocks based on the total alkali-silica diagram. doi
  4. (1999). A past giant lateral collapse and present-day flank instability of Fogo, Cape Verde Islands. J Volcanol Geotherm Res V. doi
  5. (1992). A reappraisal of ignimbrite emplacement: progressive aggradation and changes from particulate to non-particulate flow during emplacement of high-grade ignimbrite. doi
  6. (1997). A seismic study of lithospheric flexure in the vicinity of Tenerife Canary Islands. doi
  7. (1974). Bergstürze in den Alpen: Munich, Wissenschaftliche Alpenvereinshefte,
  8. (1988). Caldera formation at Volcan Colima, Mexico, by a large Holocene volcanic debris avalanche. doi
  9. (1997). Catastrophic collapse at stratovolcanoes induced by gradual volcano spreading. Nature 387: 387 - 390 van Wyk de Vries B, Kerle N, Petley D doi
  10. (1996). Catastrophic collapse of the volcanic island of Hierro 15 ka ago and the history of landslides in the Canary Islands. doi
  11. (1984). Catastrophic debris avalanche from ancestral Mount Shasta volcano, doi
  12. (2007). Catastrophic rockslide-debris avalanche at St. Bernard, Southern Leyte, Philippines. Landslides 4:85-90 Chiocci FL and de Alteriis G doi
  13. (1996). climactic eruption of Mount Pinatubo,
  14. (1994). Cronología K – Ar de la Formación Cañadas en el sector suroeste de Tenerife: Implicaciones de los episodios piroclásticos en la evolución volcánica.
  15. (2002). Deposits from dome-collapse and fountain-collapse pyroclastic flows at Soufrière Hills Volcano, doi
  16. (1989). Depresiones formadas por deslizamiento gravitacional en Tenerife, ESF meeting on Canarian Volcanism, Lanzarote, Canary Islands. European Science Foundation Neumann ER, Griffin WL, Pearson NJ, O’Reilly SY
  17. (2006). Disturbance regime landscapes: mountain drainage systems interrupted by large rockslides. doi
  18. (2001). Earth Sci (Geol Rundsch) 91:629-641 vii doi
  19. (1989). Editor, A Classification of Igneous Rocks and Glossary of Terms., doi
  20. (1996). Editors, Volcano Instability on the Earth and Other Planets, doi
  21. (2007). Emplacement mechanisms of contrasting debris avalanches at Volcán mombacho (Nicaragua), provided by structural and facies analysis. doi
  22. (1989). Estudio volcanoestratigráfico y volcanológicode los piroclástos sálicos del sur de Tenerife. PhD thesis, Universidad de la Laguna.
  23. (1996). Evaluation of volcano flank instability triggered by dyke intrusion. In: doi
  24. (2002). Evidence for Fractional Crystallization of Periodically Refilled Magma Chambers in Tenerife, Canary Islands. doi
  25. (1999). Evolution of the Cañadas edifice and its implications for the origin of the Cañadas Caldera (Tenerife, Canary Islands). doi
  26. (2000). Evolution of the north flank of Tenerife by recurrent giant landslides. doi
  27. (1954). Experiments on a gravity-free dispersion of large solid spheres in a Newtonian fluid under doi
  28. (1998). Field and paleomagnetic characterization of lithic and scoriaceous breccias at Pleistocene Broken Top volcano, Oregon Cascades. doi
  29. (2004). Flow Transformations in Particulate Gravity Current. doi
  30. (2008). Geotechnical classification and characterisation of materials for stability analyses of large volcanic slopes. Eng Geol 98: 1-17 Druitt TH & Bacon CR
  31. (1999). Geotherm Res 115: 109-138 Takarada
  32. (2004). Geotherm Res 152:
  33. (1999). Giant Quaternary landslides in the evolution of La Palma and El Hierro, Canary Islands. doi
  34. (1992). Glissements et depots gravitaires en domaine volcano-sédimentaire sous-marin (volcan de la Fournaise, île de la Réunion).
  35. (2005). Graben structure in the Las Cañadas edifice (Tenerife, Canary Islands): implications for active degassing and insights on the caldera formation. doi
  36. (2003). Granular memory and its effect on the triggering and distribution of rock avalanche events. doi
  37. (2008). Growth and collapse of the Reunion Island volcanoes. doi
  38. (2002). Hydrodynamic behaviour of Taupo 1800a pumice: implications for the sedimentology of remobilized pyroclasts. doi
  39. (1998). i) Samples were irradiated for 0.75 hr in the Cd-lined CLICIT facility, TRIGA reactor, Oregon State University. Alder Creek Sanidine (AC-2) was used as the neutron fluence monitor with a reference age of 1.94
  40. (2007). Impact surge on mars. Lunar and Planetary Science, XXXVIII, pp.1757 Korup O
  41. (2006). Ischuk A and Vinnichenko S doi
  42. (1991). Lahars: Volcano-hydrologic events and deposition in the Debris Flow - Hyperconcentrated flow continuum. In: doi
  43. (1985). Landslides from massive rock slope failure, doi
  44. (1991). Large landslides from oceanic volcanoes, Marine Geotechnology 10; doi
  45. (1999). Large Landslides Triggered by Caldera Collapse Events in Tenerife, Canary Islands. doi
  46. (1992). Letters 150: 177-189 Stoopes GR & Sheridan MF
  47. (1998). Lithic breccias in intermediate volume phonolitic ignimbrites, Tenerife (Canary Islands): constraints on pyroclastic flow depositional processes. doi
  48. (1971). Litología y estructura del edificio Cañadas,
  49. (2005). Long-runout pyroclastic surge on a cretaceous alluvial plain, Republic of Korea. doi
  50. (1992). Morphology and emplacement of an unusual debris-avalanche deposit at Jocotitlán volcano, Central Mexico. Bull Volcanol 54: 573-589 doi
  51. (1999). Multiple edifice failures, debris avalanches and associated eruptions in the Holocene history of Shiveluch volcano, doi
  52. (1981). Nirasaki debris avalanche, a catastrophic event at the Yatsugatake volcanic chain, central Japan.
  53. (2002). Parallel adaptive numerical simulation of dry avalanches over natural terrain. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 139: 1-21 Pinel V and Jaupart C (2005). Caldera formation by magma withdrawal from a reservoir beneath a volcanic edifice. doi
  54. (2008). Peperino Albano ignimbrite (Colli Albani volcano, Central Italy). Bull Volcanol 70: 877-893 Quidelleur X, Hildenbrand A, Samper A doi
  55. (2003). Prodigious submarine landslides on the Hawaiian Ridge. doi
  56. (2005). Progressive assembly of a massive layer of ignimbrite with a normal-to-reverse compositional zoning: the Zaragoza ignimbrite of central Mexico. Bull Volcanol 68: 3-20 Carrasco Nuñez G, Rose WI doi
  57. (2006). Rapid rock mass flow with dynamic fragmentation: inferences from the morphology and internal structure of rockslides and rock avalanches. doi
  58. (1999). Repeated debris avalanches on Tenerife and genesis of Las Cañadas caldera wall (Canary Islands). doi
  59. (1994). Reply to Wolff and Turbeville’s Comment on “A reappraisal of ignimbrite emplacement: progressive aggradation and particulate to nonparticulate flow transitions during emplacement of high-grade ignimbrite” by MJ Branney doi
  60. (1996). Review of proposed mechanisms for Sturzstroms (long-runout landslides). In:
  61. (2002). Rifting, recurrent landsliding and Miocene structural reorganization on NW-Tenerife (Canary Islands) doi
  62. (1978). Scale-dependent rockslides mechanisms, with emphasis on the role of pore fluid vaporization. In: doi
  63. (1991). Secondary electron imagery of microcracks and hackly fracture surfaces in sand-size clasts from the 1980 Mount St. Helens debris-avalanche deposit: Implications for particle-particle interactions. doi
  64. (1997). sector collapse and debris avalanche at Soufrière Hills Volcano, doi
  65. (1980). Sedimentary Environments and Facies, (Editor); Blackwell Scientific Publications, doi
  66. (1989). Sedimentation in Volcanic Settings, SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology), Special Publication No. 45 ISBN 0-918985-89-7 García-Cacho L and Anguita-Virela F doi
  67. (2002). Slope failures on the flanks of the western Canary Islands. Earth Sci Rev 57: 1-35 Masson DG, LeBas TP Grevemeyer I and Weinrebe W doi
  68. (2000). Spreading volcanoes.
  69. (2000). Stratified granular media beneath large slide blocks: Implications for mode of emplacement. doi
  70. (2004). Stratigraphy of the 8.5 - 9.0 ka B.P. Citlaltépetl pumice fallout sequence. Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Geológicas,
  71. (2003). Submarine slides on volcanic islands – a source for mega-tsunamis in the Quaternary. Progress in doi
  72. (2003). Susceptibility of mid-ocean ridge volcanic islands and seamounts to large-scale landsliding. doi
  73. (1995). The ~2ka subplinian eruption of Montaña Blanca,
  74. (1994). The Canary Islands: an example of structural control on the growth of large oceanic-island volcanoes. doi
  75. (2002). The eruption of Soufrière Hills Volcano, doi
  76. (2002). The mobility of long-runout landslides. doi
  77. (1995). The Socompa collapse and avalanche event. doi
  78. (2004). Transport and deposition of pyroclastic material from the ~ 1000 A.D. caldera-forming eruption of Volcán Ceboruco,
  79. (2000). Volcanic debris avalanche deposits of the upper Maronne valley (Cantal Volcano, France): evidence for contrasted formation and transport mechanisms. doi
  80. (2003). Volcano instability and lateral collapse.

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.