Location of Repository

Curcumin-Induced G2/M Cell Cycle Arrest in Colorectal Cancer Cells

By Louise Margaret Blakemore


Curcumin, a diet-derived chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agent has been shown to induce G2/M cell cycle arrest, and previous studies suggested that microtubule depolymerisation may be linked to M-phase arrest. However, mechanisms involved have not been elucidated and often non-physiological concentrations of curcumin were used. The goal of this study was to characterise in more detail curcumin-induced cell cycle arrest using a panel of human colorectal cancer cell (CRC) lines, HT-29, SW480, HCT116 p53+/+, HCT116 p53-/- and HCT116 p21-/-. \ud Using physiologically relevant concentrations of curcumin (5-10μM), achievable in the gut tissue following oral ingestion, cell cycle analysis showed that treatment for 12 hours results in significant G2/M arrest in all five cell lines. Curcumin treatment significantly increased the number of cells in M phase in 4 out of the 5 lines tested for this duration, and those with microsatellite instability (HCT116) were found to have a higher mitotic index than those with chromosomal instability. Pre-treatment with caffeine abrogated mitotic arrest in these cell lines, indicating the involvement of the ATM/ATR kinases. Activating phosphorylation of the Chk1 kinase was increased and total protein levels of CDC25C reduced, further implicating the DNA damage pathway in the induction of arrest. Higher levels of HSP70 were also found, indicating proteotoxic stress such as proteasomal inhibition. \ud Image analysis revealed impaired mitotic progression, and significantly higher levels of mitotic spindle abnormalities following curcumin treatment. Aurora B mislocalisation and significantly lower levels of centrosomal separation were found in the HCT116 p53+/+ line. Furthermore, the high levels of pH2A.X staining seen in curcumin-treated mitotic but not interphase cells suggest that aberrant mitosis may result in DNA damage. This proteotoxic and genotoxic stress incurred following curcumin treatment may contribute to the upregulation of NKG2D ligands on the cell surface, leading to CRC lysis and enhancement of the anti-cancer immune response

Publisher: University of Leicester
Year: 2011
OAI identifier: oai:lra.le.ac.uk:2381/9809

Suggested articles



  1. (2008). (-)-Epigallocatechin gallate, a major constituent of green tea, poisons human type II topoisomerases.
  2. (2007b) Aurora B phosphorylates multiple sites on mitotic centromereassociated kinesin to spatially and temporally regulate its function.
  3. (2002). A DNA damage-regulated BRCT-containing protein, TopBP1, is required for cell survival.
  4. (1990). A genetic model for colorectal tumourigenesis.
  5. (1999). A human homologue of the checkpoint kinase Cds1 directly inhibits Cdc25 phosphatase.
  6. (2009). A mechanism for chromosome segregation sensing by the NoCut checkpoint.
  7. (2010). A mitotic phosphorylation feedback network connects
  8. (2008). A novel function for HSF-1-induced mitotic exit failure and genomic instability through direct interaction between HSF-1 and Cdc20.
  9. (2006). A phosphatase complex that dephosphorylates γH2AX regulates DNA damage checkpoint recovery.
  10. (1999). A role for ATR in the DNA damage-induced phosphorylation of p53.
  11. (1994). A topoisomerase II-dependent G2 cycle checkpoint in mammalian cells.
  12. (1988). Activation at Mphase of a protein kinase encoded by a starfish homologue of the cell cycle control gene cdc2+.
  13. (2009). Activation of ATM/Chk1 by curcumin causes cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human pancreatic cancer cells.
  14. (2006). Activation of Checkpoint Kinase 2 by 3,3 '-Diindolylmethane Is Required for Causing G2/M Cell Cycle Arrest in Human Ovarian Cancer Cells.
  15. (2005). Activation of PPARγ by curcumin inhibits Moser cell growth and mediates suppression of gene expression of cyclin D1 and EGFR.
  16. (1998). Activation of the ATM kinase by ionizing radiation and phosphorylation of p53.
  17. (1997). Activation of β-catenin-Tcf signaling in colon cancer by mutations in β-catenin or APC.
  18. (2000). Active DNA topoisomerase IIα is a component of the salt-stable centrosome core.
  19. (1999). activities by the radiosensitizing agent, caffeine.
  20. (2004). Acute ablation of survivin uncovers p53-dependent mitotic checkpoint functions and control of mitochondrial apoptosis.
  21. (1997). Adjuvant chemotherapy in colorectal carcinoma - Results of a meta-analysis.
  22. (1998). AIM-1: a mammalian midbody-associated protein required for cytokinesis.
  23. (1998). An innate sense of danger.
  24. (1996). Anaphase initiation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is controlled by the APC-dependent degradation of the anaphase inhibitor
  25. (1994). Anaphase onset in vertebrate somatic cells is controlled by a checkpoint that monitors sister kinetochore attachment to the spindle.
  26. (2001). Aneuploid colon cancer cells have a robust spindle checkpoint.
  27. (1980). Anti-tumour activity of platinum(II) complexes of 1,2-diaminocyclohexane isomers.
  28. (1992). APC mutations occur early during colorectal carcinogenesis.
  29. (1996). Apoptosis and APC in colorectal tumorigenesis.
  30. (2004). Architectural organisation of the regulatory machinery for transcription, replication, and repair: dynamic temporal-spacial parameters of cell cycle control. IN
  31. (2008). Association between chromosomal instability and prognosis in colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis.
  32. (1999). Association of BRCA1 with the hRad50-hMre11-p95 complex and the DNA damage response.
  33. (2000). Ataxia telangiectasia-mutated phosphorylates Chk2 in vivo and in vitro.
  34. (2007). Ataxiatelangiectasia mutated (ATM)-dependent activation of ATR occurs through phosphorylation of TopBP1 by ATM.
  35. (2005). ATM activation and its recruitment to damaged DNA require binding to the C terminus of Nbs1. Molecular and Cellular
  36. (2005). ATM activation by DNA double-strand breaks through the Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 complex.
  37. (2000). ATM phosphorylates p95/nbs1 in an S-phase checkpoint pathway.
  38. (2000). ATM phosphorylation of Nijmegen breakage syndrome protein is required in a DNA damage response.
  39. (2006). ATM- and cell cycle-dependent regulation of ATR in response to DNA double-strand breaks.
  40. (2009). ATM-ATR-dependent up-regulation of DNAM-1 and NKG2D ligands on multiple myeloma cells by therapeutic agents results in enhanced NK-cell susceptibility and is associated with a senescent phenotype.
  41. (2001). ATM-dependent phosphorylation of Mdm2 on serine 395: role in p53 activation by DNA damage.
  42. (2001). ATR and ATRIP: Partners in checkpoint signaling.
  43. (2001). ATR/ATM-mediated phosphorylation of human Rad17 is required for genotoxic stress responses.
  44. (2006). Aurora B is enriched at merotelic attachment sites, where it regulates MCAK.
  45. (2010). Aurora B phosphorylates spatially distinct targets to differentially regulate the kinetochore-microtubule interface.
  46. (2004). Aurora B regulates MCAK at the mitotic centromere.
  47. (2009). Aurora B-mediated abscission checkpoint protects against tetraploidization.
  48. (2009). Aurora-A expression is independently associated with chromosomal instability in colorectal cancer.
  49. (2002). Aurora-B phosphorylates histone H3 at serine28 with regard to the mitotic chromosome condensation. Genes to Cells,
  50. (2007). Bevacizumab and cetuximab for the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer.
  51. (2008). Biological activities of curcumin and its analogues (Congeners) made by man and Mother Nature.
  52. (2004). Borealin: a novel chromosomal passenger required for stability of the bipolar mitotic spindle.
  53. (2002). BRCA1 regulates the G2/M checkpoint by activating Chk1 kinase upon DNA damage.
  54. (2005). Bub1 and Aurora B cooperate to maintain BubR1-mediated inhibition of APC/C-Cdc20.
  55. (2007). Bub1 maintains centromeric cohesion by activation of the spindle checkpoint.
  56. (1998). Budding yeast Cdc20: A target of the spindle checkpoint.
  57. (1996). Camptothecin and taxol: From discovery to clinic.
  58. (1985). Camptothecin induces protein-linked DNA breaks via mammalian topoisomerase I.
  59. (2001). Cancer risk in patients with inflammatory bowel disease - A population-based study.
  60. (2007). Cancer survival trends in England and Wales, 1971-1995: Deprivation and NHS Region. Office for National Statistics,
  61. (1991). CD8+ αβ or γδ T cell receptorbearing T cells from athymic nude mice are cytolytically active in vivo.
  62. (1988). Cdc2 is a component of the M phase-specific histone H1 kinase: Evidence for identity with
  63. (2010). Cdc25 Phosphatases Are Required for Timely Assembly of CDK1-cyclin B at the G2/M Transition.
  64. (1991). Cdc5 is a specific tyrosine phosphatase that directly activates p34cdc2.
  65. (1997). CDK1 inactivation regulates anaphase spindle dynamics and cytokinesis in vivo.
  66. (2004). Cell cycle regulatory cascades. Cell Cycle and Growth Control: Biomolecular Regulation
  67. (2007). Cells lacking DNA topoisomerase IIβ are resistant to genistein.
  68. (2010). Centromere DNA decatenation depends on cohesin removal and is required for mammalian cell division.
  69. (2006). Centromere targeting of the chromosomal passenger complex requires a ternary subcomplex of borealin, survivin, and the N-terminal domain of INCENP.
  70. (2009). Changing of the guard: How ATM hands off DNA double-strand break signaling to ATR.
  71. (2003). Characterization of sporadic colon cancer by patterns of genomic instability.
  72. (2001). Checking two steps.
  73. (2001). Checkpoint inhibition of the APC/C in HeLa cells is mediated by a complex of BubR1, Bub3, Cdc20, and MAD2.
  74. (2005). Checkpoint kinase 1 regulates diallyl trisulfide-induced mitotic arrest in human prostate cancer cells.
  75. (1995). Chemoprevention of colon carcinogenesis by dietary curcumin, a naturally occuring plant phenolic compound.
  76. (2002). Chemopreventive efficacy and pharmacokinetics of curcumin in the Min/+ mouse, a model of familial adenomatous polyposis.
  77. (2004). CHFR acts with the p38 stress kinases to block entry to mitosis in mammalian cells.
  78. (2000). CHFR defines a mitotic stress checkpoint that delays entry into metaphase.
  79. (2002). CHFR regulates a mitotic stress pathway through its RING-finger domain with ubiquitin ligase activity.
  80. (2000). Chk1 is an essential kinase that is regulated by ATR and required for the G2/M DNA damage checkpoint.
  81. (2007). Chk1 is required for spindle checkpoint function.
  82. (2003). Chk1 regulates the S phase checkpoint by coupling the physiological turnover and ionizing radiationinduced accelerated proteolysis of Cdc25A.
  83. (2004). Chk1, but not Chk2, inhibits Cdc25 phosphatases by a novel common mechanism.
  84. (1996). Chromatid segregation at anaphase requires the barren product, a novel chromosome-associated protein that interacts with topoisomerase II.
  85. (2001). Chromatin-associated protein phosphatase 1 regulates Aurora-B and histone H3 phosphorylation.
  86. (2007). Chromosomal passengers: conducting cell division.
  87. (1991). Chromosomal passengers: toward an integrated view of mitosis.
  88. (2006). Chromosomes walk the line.
  89. (2002). Clamp and clamp loader structures of the human checkpoint protein complexes, Rad9-1-1 and Rad17-RFC. Genes to Cells,
  90. (2007). Clinical studies with curcumin. Molecular Targets and Therapeutic Uses of Curcumin in Health and Disease.
  91. (2007). Comparison of oxaliplatin- and curcumin-mediated antiproliferative effects in colorectal cell lines.
  92. (2001). Completion of cytokinesis in C-elegans requires a brefeldin A-sensitive membrane accumulation at the cleavage furrow apex.
  93. (2008). Comprehensive biostatistical analysis of CpG island methylator phenotype in colorectal cancer using a large populationbased sample.
  94. (2003). Condensin-dependent localisation of topoisomerase II to an axial chromosomal structure is required for sister chromatid resolution during mitosis.
  95. (2010). Conserved modes of recruitment of ATM, ATR and DNA-PKcs to sites of DNA damage.
  96. (2009). Constitutive NF-κB activation in colorectal carcinoma plays a key role in angiogenesis, promoting tumor growth.
  97. (2005). Consumption of the putative chemopreventive agent curcumin by cancer patients: Assessment of curcumin levels in the colorectum and their pharmacodynamic consequences.
  98. (2002). Convergence of the Fanconi anemia and ataxia telangiectasia signaling pathways.
  99. (1992). Coupling of mitosis to the completion of S phase in Xenopus occurs via modulation of the tyrosine kinase that phosphorylates p34cdc2
  100. (2009). CpG island methylator phenotype, microsatellite instability, BRAF mutation and clinical outcome in colon cancer.
  101. (2007). CRYSTAL, a randomized phase III trial of cetuximab plus FOLFIRI vs. FOLFIRI in first-line metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC).
  102. (2006). Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) down-regulates expression of cell proliferation and antiapoptotic and metastatic gene products through suppression of IκBα kinase and Akt activation.
  103. (2006). Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) inhibits constitutive active NF-κB, leading to suppression of cell growth of human T-cell leukemia virus type I-infected T-cell lines and primary adult T-cell leukemia cells.
  104. (2006). Curcumin abolishes apoptosis resistance of calcitriol-differentiated HL-60 cells.
  105. (2006). Curcumin affects components of the chromosomal passenger complex and induces mitotic catastrophe in apoptosis-resistant Bcr-Ablexpressing cells.
  106. (2004). Curcumin and derivatives.
  107. (2003). Curcumin as a DNA topoisomerase II poison.
  108. (2009). Curcumin derivatives: Molecular basis of their anti-cancer activity.
  109. (2010). Curcumin disrupts meiotic and mitotic divisions via spindle impairment and inhibition of CDK1 activity.
  110. (2002). Curcumin disrupts mitotic spindle structure and induces micronucleation in MCF-7 breast cancer cells.
  111. (2008). Curcumin enhances the effects of 5-fluorouracil and oxaliplatin in mediating growth inhibition of colon cancer cells by modulating EGFR and IGF-IR.
  112. (2001). Curcumin induced modulation of cell cycle and apoptosis in gastric and colon cancer cells.
  113. (2009). Curcumin induces apoptosis-independent death in oesophageal cancer cells.
  114. (2007). Curcumin induces high levels of topoisomerase I- and II DNA complexes in K562 leukemia cells.
  115. (1999). Curcumin inhibits cell proliferation by interfering with the cell cycle and inducing apoptosis in colon carcinoma cells.
  116. (1996). Curcumin inhibits the proliferation and cell cycle progression of human umbilical vein endothelial cell.
  117. (2008). Curcumin inhibits the proteasome activity in human colon cancer cells in vitro and in vivo.
  118. (2008). Curcumin inhibits VEGF-mediated angiogenesis in human intestinal microvascular endothelial cells through COX-2 and MAPK inhibition.
  119. (2007). Curcumin reverses breast tumor exosomes mediated immune suppression of NK cell tumor cytotoxicity.
  120. (2006). Curcumin sensitizes tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosisinducing ligand (TRAIL)-mediated apoptosis through CHOP-independent DR5 upregulation.
  121. (2010). Curcumin suppresses the dynamic instability of microtubules, activates the mitotic checkpoint and induces apoptosis in MCF-7 cells.
  122. (2010). Curcumin targets FOLFOX-surviving colon cancer cells via inhibition of EGFRs and IGF-1R.
  123. (2010). Curcumin upregulates insulin-like growth factor binding protein-5 (IGFBP-5) and C/EBPα during oral cancer suppression.
  124. (1997). Curcumin, a natural plant phenolic food additive, inhibits cell proliferation and induces cell cycle changes in colon adenocarcinoma cell lines by a prostaglandin-independent pathway.
  125. (2005). Curcumin: the story so far.
  126. (2010). Current understanding and importance of histone phosphorylation in regulating chromatin biology.
  127. (1996). Cut2 proteolysis required for sister-chromatid separation in fission yeast.
  128. (2004). Cyr61 expression confers resistance to apoptosis in breast cancer MCF-7 cells by a mechanism of NF-κB-dependent XIAP up-regulation.
  129. (2007). Cytokinesis: Placing and making the final cut.
  130. (1978). Cytologic evidence that taxol, an anti-neoplastic agent from Taxus brevifolia, acts as a mitotic spindle poison.
  131. (2001). Danger signals: SOS to the immune system.
  132. (2001). Deficient DNA mismatch repair: a common etiologic factor for colon cancer.
  133. (2010). Definitive molecular cytogenetic characterization of 15 colorectal cancer cell lines.
  134. (2000). Degradation of human Aurora2 protein kinase by the anaphase-promoting complex-ubiquitin-proteasome pathway.
  135. (2005). Demonstration of EGFR gene copy loss in colorectal carcinomas by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH): a surrogate marker for sensitivity to specific anti-EGFR therapy?
  136. (2005). Destruction box-dependent degradation of Aurora B is mediated by the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome and Cdh1.
  137. (2004). Dial 9-1-1 for DNA damage: the RaO-Hus1-Rad1 (9-1-1) clamp complex.
  138. (2009). Diallyl trisulfide-induced apoptosis in human cancer cells is linked to checkpoint kinase 1-mediated mitotic arrest.
  139. (2005). Diallyl trisulfide-induced G2/M phase cell cycle arrest in human prostate cancer cells is caused by reactive oxygen species-dependent destruction and hyperphosphorylation of Cdc25C.
  140. (2006). Dietary antioxidant curcumin inhibits microtubule assembly through tubulin binding.
  141. (2000). Dietary bioflavonoids induce cleavage in the MLL gene and may contribute to infant leukemia.
  142. (1991). Differential phosphorylation of vertebrate p34cdc2 kinase at the G1/S and G2/M transitions of the cell cycle: identification of major phosphorylation sites
  143. (2008). Direct and natural killer cellmediated antitumor effects of low-dose Bortezomib in hepatocellular carcinoma.
  144. (2009). Discontinued drugs in 2008: oncology drugs.
  145. (2001). Disparate effects of similar phenolic phytochemicals as inhibitors of oxidative damage to cellular DNA.
  146. (2002). Disruption of the checkpoint kinase 1/cell division cycle 25A pathway abrogates ionizing radiation-induced S and G2 checkpoints.
  147. (2008). Dissection of spontaneous cytotoxicity by human intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes: MIC on colon cancer triggers NKG2Dmediated lysis through Fas ligand.
  148. (2003). Distinct spatiotemporal dynamics of mammalian checkpoint regulators induced by DNA damage.
  149. (2008). DNA damage activates the SAC in an ATM/ATRdependent manner, independently of the kinetochore.
  150. (2008). DNA damage and endoplasmic reticulum stress mediated curcumin-induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human lung carcinoma A-549 cells through the activation caspases cascadeand mitochondrial-dependent pathway.
  151. (1999). DNA damage and repair in human lymphocytes and gastric mucosa cells exposed to chromium and curcumin.
  152. (2006). DNA damage checkpoints in mammals.
  153. (1998). DNA double-stranded breaks induce histone H2AX phosphorylation on serine 139.
  154. (2007). DNA methylation promotes Aurora-B-driven phosphorylation of histone H3 in chromosomal subdomains.
  155. (2009). DNA topoisomerase II and its growing repertoire of biological functions.
  156. (1989). DNA topoisomerase Imediated DNA cleavage and cytotoxicity of camptothecin analogues.
  157. (2001). Drosophila Aurora B kinase is required for histone H3
  158. (2008). Dual role of topoisomerase II in centromere resolution and Aurora B activity.
  159. (1997). Dynamic changes of BRCA1 subnuclear location and phosphorylation state are initiated by DNA damage.
  160. (2002). Dynamics of human DNA topoisomerases IIα and IIβ in living cells.
  161. (1996). Early alteration of cell-cycle-regulated gene expression in colorectal neoplasia.
  162. (2010). Effects of KRAS, BRAF, NRAS, and PIK3CA mutations on the efficacy of cetuximab plus chemotherapy in chemotherapy-refractory metastatic colorectal cancer: a retrospective consortium analysis.
  163. (1998). Effects of thiols on topoisomerase-II alpha activity and cell cycle progression.
  164. (2009). Elimination of colon cancer stem-like cells by the combination of curcumin and FOLFOX.
  165. (1998). Enhanced phosphorylation of p53 by ATM in response to DNA damage.
  166. (2005). Epidermal growth factor receptor expression and gene amplification in colorectal carcinoma: an immunohistochemical and chromogenic in situ hybridization study.
  167. (1998). Etoposide-related acute promyelocytic leukemia.
  168. (2005). Evaluation of a large, populationbased sample supports a CpG island methylator phenotype in colon cancer.
  169. (2010). Evolving treatment of advanced colorectal cancer.
  170. (1985). Experimental analysis of the reproduction of spindle poles
  171. (2003). Exploring the functional interactions between Aurora B, INCENP, and survivin in mitosis.
  172. (1995). Expression of prostaglanding G/H synthase-1 and synthase-2 protein in human colon cancer.
  173. (2008). First-line treatment of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer: An overview of recent data on chemotherapy plus targeted agents.
  174. (1989). Fluorescence of plastic embedded tissue-sections after curcumin staining.
  175. (1957). Fluorinated pyrimidines, a new class of tumour-inhibitory compounds.
  176. (2007). Frequent alteration of DNA damage signalling and repair pathways in human colorectal cancers with microsatellite instability.
  177. (1982). Functional autonomy of monopolar spindle and evidence for oscillatory movement in mitosis.
  178. (2006). Gallic acid causes inactivating phosphorylation of Cdc25A/Cdc25C-Cdc2 via ATM-Chk2 activation, leading to cell cycle arrest, and induces apoptosis in human prostate carcinoma DU145 cells.
  179. (1992). Germline mutations of the APC gene in 53 familial adenomatous polyposis patients.
  180. (2009). Getting down to the phosphorylated 'nuts and bolts' of spindle checkpoint signalling.
  181. (2005). Good timing in the cell cycle for precise DNA repair by BRCA1.
  182. (2004). Guidance on cancer services: Improving outcomes in colorectal cancers.
  183. (2009). HDAC3 represses the expression of NKG2D ligands ULBPs in epithelial tumour cells: potential implications for the immunosurveillance of cancer.
  184. (2006). Heat shock protein 70 is secreted from tumor cells by a nonclassical pathway involving lysosomal endosomes.
  185. (1998). Heat shock protein 70 kDa: Molecular biology, biochemistry, and physiology.
  186. (2005). Highly sensitive near-infrared fluorescent probes for nitric oxide and their application to isolated organs.
  187. (1978). Histone phosphorylation and chromatin structure during mitosis in chinese hamster cells.
  188. (2007). Human cancer cells commonly acquire DNA damage during mitotic arrest.
  189. (2003). Human colon cancer cells differ in their sensitivity to curcumin-induced apoptosis and heat shock protects them by inhibiting the release of apoptosis-inducing factor and caspases.
  190. (1999). Human cyclin A is required for mitosis until mid prophase.
  191. (2004). Human PTIP facilitates ATMmediated activation of p53 and promotes cellular resistance to ionizing radiation.
  192. (2002). Human securin proteolysis is controlled by the spindle checkpoint and reveals when the APC/C switches from activation by Cdc20 to Cdh1.
  193. (1993). Human Wee1 kinase inhibits cell division by phosphorylating p34cdc2 exclusively on Tyr15.
  194. (1993). Human Wee1 maintains mitotic timing by protecting the nucleus from cytoplasmically activated
  195. (2002). Hus1 acts upstream of Chk1 in a mammalian DNA damage response pathway.
  196. (2010). Hydroxyurea upregulates NKG2D ligand expression in myeloid leukemia cells synergistically with valproic acid and potentially enhances susceptibility of leukemic cells to natural killer cell-mediated cytolysis.
  197. (1991). Identification and characterisation of the familial adenomatous polyposis coli gene.
  198. (2003). Identification of a consensus motif for Plk (Polo-like kinase) phosphorylation reveals MYT1 as a Plk1 substrate.
  199. (2002). Identification of a new APC/C recognition domain, the A box, which is required for the Cdh1-dependent destruction of the kinase Aurora-A during mitotic exit.
  200. (1999). Identification of a novel phosphorylation site on histone H3 coupled with mitotic chromosome condensation.
  201. (1991). Identification of deletion mutations and 3 new genes at the familial polyposis locus.
  202. (1991). Identification of FAP locus genes from chromosome 5q21
  203. (2010). Identification of key genes for carcinogenic pathways associated with colorectal adenoma-to-carcinoma progression.
  204. (2006). Increase of NKG2D ligands and sensitivity to NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity of tumor cells by heat shock and ionizing radiation.
  205. (2006). Induction of G2/M arrest and inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 activity by curcumin in human bladder cancer T24 cells.
  206. (2001). Induction of stress response renders human tumor cell lines resistant to curcumin-mediated apoptosis: role of reactive oxygen intermediates.
  207. (1994). Induction of WAF1/CIP1 by a p53-independent Pathway.
  208. (1998). Influence of piperine on the pharmacokinetics of curcumin in animals and human volunteers.
  209. (1993). Inhibition by dietary curcumin of azoxymethane-induced ornithine decarboxylase, tyrosine protein kinase, arachadonic metabolism and aberrant crypt foci formation in the rat colon.
  210. (2009). Inhibition of cell proliferation by a resveratrol analog in human pancreatic and breast cancer cells.
  211. (1995). Inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinases by p21.
  212. (1999). Inhibition of cyclo-oxygenase 2 expression in colon cells by the chemopreventive agent curcumin involves inhibition of NF-κB activation via the NIK/IKK signalling complex.
  213. (2007). Inhibition of HSP90 function by ansamycins causes downregulation of
  214. (2000). Inhibition of intestinal tumors by curcumin is associated with changes in the intestinal immune cell profile.
  215. (2001). Inhibition of polo-like kinase-1 by DNA damage occurs in an ATM- or ATR-dependent fashion.
  216. (1991). Inhibitors of DNA topoisomerase II prevent chromatid separation in mammalian cells but do not prevent exit from mitosis
  217. (1992). Inhibitory effects of curcumin on tumour initiation by benzo[a]pyrene and 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene.
  218. (2000). Initiation of eukaryotic DNA replication: Origin unwinding and sequential chromatin association of
  219. (2004). Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I, IGF binding protein-3, and cancer risk: systematic review and meta-regression analysis.
  220. (2009). Integrative genomics reveals mechanisms of copy number alterations responsible for transcriptional deregulation in colorectal cancer.
  221. (1998). Interphase cell cycle dynamics of a latereplicating, heterochromatic homogeneously staining region: Precise choreography of condensation/decondensation and nuclear positioning.
  222. (2004). Interplay of natural killer cells and their receptors with the adaptive immune response.
  223. (2005). Intestinal γδ T cells develop in mice lacking thymus, all lymph nodes, Peyer's patches, and isolated lymphoid follicles.
  224. (2008). Intrinsic sensor of oncogenic transformation induces a signal for innate immunosurveillance.
  225. (2006). Involvement of Nrf2, p38, B-Raf, and nuclear factor-κB, but not phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, in induction of hemeoxygenase-1 by dietary polyphenols.
  226. (2002). Involvement of the cohesin protein, Smc1, in ATM-dependent and independent responses to DNA damage.
  227. (2005). Irinotecan, oxaliplatin and raltitrexed for the treatment of advanced colorectal cancer.
  228. (1986). Isolation and characterisation of Schizosaccharomyces pombe cut mutants that block nuclear division but not cytokinesis.
  229. (2003). K-ras oncogene mutations in sporadic colorectal cancer in The Netherlands Cohort Study.
  230. (1997). Kinetochore fiber maturation in PtK1 cells and its implications for the mechanisms of chromosome congression and anaphase onset.
  231. (1975). Kinetochores and microtubules in multipolar mitosis and chromosome orientation.
  232. (1990). Kinetochores are transported poleward along a single astral microtubule during chromosome attachment to the spindle in newt lung cells.
  233. (2003). Matrix metalloproteinase-3 secretion from human colonic subepithelial myofibroblasts: role of interleukin-17.
  234. (2004). MDC1 couples DNA double-strand break recognition by NBS1 with its H2AX-dependent chromatin retention.
  235. (2003). MDC1 is a mediator of the mammalian DNA damage checkpoint.
  236. (2003). MDC1 is coupled to activated Chk2 in mammalian DNA damage response pathways.
  237. (2003). MDC1 is required for the intra-S-phase DNA damage checkpoint.
  238. (2006). MDC1 maintains genomic stability by participating in the amplification of ATM-dependent DNA damage signals.
  239. (1997). Mdm-2 phosphorylation by DNAdependent protein kinase prevents interaction with p53.
  240. (2000). Mechanism of action of camptothecin.
  241. (2006). Mechanisms of curcumin- and EGF-receptor related protein (ERRP)-dependent growth inhibition of colon cancer cells.
  242. (1999). Megabase chromatin domains involved in DNA double-strand breaks in vivo.
  243. (2000). Membrane traffic and cytokinesis.
  244. (2008). Metabolism of curcumin and induction of mitotic catastrophe in human cancer cells.
  245. (2009). MGMT and MLH1 promoter methylation versus APC, KRAS and BRAF gene mutations in colorectal cancer: indications for distinct pathways and sequence of events.
  246. (1995). Mice Lacking p21CIP1/WAF1 undergo normal development, but are defective in G1 checkpoint control.
  247. (2004). Microcephalin is a DNA damage response protein involved in regulation of Chk1 and BRCA1.
  248. (2003). Microsatellite instability is a predictive factor of the tumor response to irinotecan in patients with advanced colorectal cancer.
  249. (2000). Microtubule disassembly delays the G2-M transition in vertebrates.
  250. (2002). Microtubule flux and sliding in mitotic spindles of Drosophila embryos.
  251. (2000). Microtubule motors in mitosis.
  252. (1995). Mismatch repair defects in sporadic colorectal cancers with microsatellite instability.
  253. (2006). Mitochondrial and nuclear DNA damage induced by curcumin in human hepatoma G2 Cells.
  254. (1953). Mitosis: The Movement of Chromosomes in Cell Division,
  255. (1997). Mitotic and G2 checkpoint control: Regulation of 14-3-3 protein binding by phosphorylation of Cdc25C on serine-216.
  256. (2010). Mitotic DNA damage response Polo-like kinase-1 is dephosphorylated through ATM-Chk1 pathway.
  257. (2000). Mitotic phosphorylation of histone H3 is governed by IpI1/aurora kinase and Glc7/PP1 phosphatase in budding yeast and nematodes.
  258. (2002). Mitotic phosphorylation of histone H3: Spatio-temporal regulation by mammalian Aurora kinases.
  259. (1986). Mitotic spindle pulls but fails to seperate chromosomes in type II DNA topisomerase mutants: uncoordinated mitosis.
  260. (2002). Molecular genetic analysis of malignant melanomas for aberrations of the Wnt signaling pathway genes CTNNB1, APC, ICAT and BTRC.
  261. (2009). Multipolar spindle pole coalescence is a major source of kinetochore mis-attachment and chromosome mis-segregation in cancer cells.
  262. (1994). Mutation in the DNA mismatch repair gene homologue hMLH1 is associated with hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer.
  263. (2000). Mutational inactivation of the proapoptotic gene BAX confers selective advantage during tumor clonal evolution.
  264. (2008). Mutations in the RAS-MAPK, PI(3)K (phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase) signaling network correlate with poor survival in a population-based series of colon cancers.
  265. (1994). Mutations of 2 PMS homologues in hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer.
  266. (1993). Mutations of a mutS homolog in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer.
  267. (1991). Mutations of chromosome-5q21 genes in FAP and colorectal cancer patients.
  268. (1998). Mutations of mitotic checkpoint genes in human cancers.
  269. (1995). Myt1: A membrane-associated inhibitory kinase that phosphorylates
  270. (2008). NBS1 prevents chromatid-type aberrations through ATM-dependent interactions with SMC1.
  271. (2008). New mechanisms and therapeutic potential of curcumin for colorectal cancer.
  272. (2008). NKG2D ligands: key targets of the immune response.
  273. (2008). NKG2Ddeficient mice are defective in tumor surveillance in models of spontaneous malignancy.
  274. (2007). NMR study of the solution structure of curcumin.
  275. (1998). Novel bioactivities of Curcuma longa constituents.
  276. (2001). Nuclear exclusion of Cdc25 is not required for the DNA damage checkpoint in fission yeast.
  277. (2001). Nuclear factor-κB is upregulated in colorectal cancer.
  278. (1999). Nuclear localization of Cdc25 is regulated by DNA damage and a 14-3-3 protein.
  279. (1997). Nuclear localization of cyclin B1 mediates its biological activity and is regulated by phosphorylation.
  280. (2009). NuMA is required for proper spindle assembly and chromosome alignment in prometaphase.
  281. (1995). NUMA is required for the organization of microtubules into aster-like radial arrays.
  282. (1996). Once and only once upon a time: Specifying and regulating origins of DNA replication in eukaryotic cells.
  283. (1997). Oncoprotein MDM2 is a ubiquitin ligase E3 for tumor suppressor p53. Febs Letters,
  284. (1993). Orientation and three-dimensional organization of actin filaments in dividing cultured cells.
  285. (2009). Overall survival of patients with KRAS wild-type tumours treated with FOLFOX4 +/- cetuximab as 1st-line treatment for metastatic colorectal cancer: The OPUS study.
  286. (2006). Overexpression of p65/RelA potentiates curcumin-induced apoptosis in HCT116 human colon cancer cells.
  287. (1999). Overproduction of human MYT1 kinase induces a G2 cell cycle delay by interfering with the intracellular trafficking of Cdc2-cyclin B1 complexes.
  288. (1992). p107wee1 is a dual-specificity kinase that phosphorylates p34cdc2 on tyrosine 15.
  289. (1993). p21 is a universal inhibitor of cyclin kinases.
  290. (1995). p21 Is necessary for the p53-mediated G1 arrest in human cancer cells.
  291. (2000). p53 Binding protein 1 (53BP1) is an early participant in the cellular response to DNA double-strand breaks.
  292. (1995). p53-dependent and independent expression of p21 during cell growth, differentiation, and DNA damage.
  293. (1994). p53-dependent inhibition of cyclindependent kinase activities in human fibroblasts during radiation-induced G1 arrest
  294. (1991). p55CDC25 is a nuclear protein required for the initiation of mitosis in human cells.
  295. (2008). Perturbation of the chromosomal binding of RCC1, Mad2 and survivin causes spindle assembly defects and mitotic catastrophe.
  296. (2001). Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic study of oral Curcuma extract in patients with colorectal cancer.
  297. (2008). Phase I clinical evaluation of ZD6126, a novel vasculartargeting agent, in patients with solid tumors.
  298. (2001). Phase I clinical trial of curcumin, a chemopreventive agent, in patients with high-risk or pre-malignant lesions.
  299. (2004). Phase I clinical trial of oral curcumin: Biomarkers of systemic activity and compliance.
  300. (2008). Phase I study of ON 01910.Na, a novel modulator of the polo-like kinase 1 pathway, in adult patients with solid tumors.
  301. (2007). Phenotypic characterization of human colorectal cancer stem cells.
  302. (1984). Phosphoproteins are components of mitotic microtubule organizing centers.
  303. (1995). Phosphorylation by p34(cdc2) regulates spindle association of human Eg5, a kinesin-related motor essential for bipolar spindle formation in vivo.
  304. (1999). Phosphorylation of histone H3 is required for proper chromosome condensation and segregation.
  305. (1982). Phosphorylation of histones 1 and 3 and nonhistone high mobility group 14 by an endogenous kinase in HeLa metaphase chromosomes.
  306. (2002). Phosphorylation of serine 1387 in BRCA1 is specifically required for the ATM-mediated S-phase checkpoint after ionizing irradiation.
  307. (2008). PIK3CA mutation in colorectal cancer: Relationship with genetic and epigenetic alterations.
  308. (2009). PIK3CA mutations in colorectal cancer are associated with clinical resistance to EGFR-targeted monoclonal antibodies.
  309. (1986). Plant antitumour agents, 22: isolation of 11-hydroxycamptothecin from Camptotheca acuminata Decne: total synthesis and biological activity.
  310. (1986). Plant antitumour agents, 23: synthesis and antileukemic activity of camptothecin analogues.
  311. (1987). Plant antitumour agents, 25: total synthesis and antileukemic activity of ring Asubstituted camptothecin analogues, structure activity correlations.
  312. (1987). Plant antitumour agents, 28: resolution of a key tricyclic synthon, 5'(RS)-1,5-dioxo-(5'-ethyl-5'hydroxy2'H,5'H,6'H-6-oxopyrano)[3',4'-f]6,8-tetrahydroindolizine: total synthesis and antitumour activity of 20(S)-camptothecin and 20(R)-camptothecin.
  313. (1971). Plant antitumour agents, 6: the isolation and structure of taxol, a novel antileukemic and antitumour agent from Taxus brevifolia.
  314. (2003). Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) is overexpressed in primary colorectal cancers.
  315. (2006). Polo-like kinase 1: Target and regulator of anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome-dependent proteolysis.
  316. (2004). Polo-like kinase-1 controls recovery from a G2 DNA damage-induced arrest in mammalian cells.
  317. (2000). Polo-like kinase-1 is a target of the DNA damage checkpoint.
  318. (2009). Population-based cancer survival trends in England and Wales up to 2007: an assessment of the NHS cancer plan for England The Lancet Oncology,
  319. (2001). Positive regulation of
  320. (1991). Production of protein-associated DNA breaks by 8-methoxycaffeine, caffeine and 8-chlorocaffeine in isolated nuclei from L1210 cells: comparison with those produced by topoisomerase II inhibitors.
  321. (1997). Progress in clinical chemoprevention. Seminars in oncology,
  322. (2007). Promiscuity and the single receptor: NKG2D.
  323. (2009). Proteasome Regulation of ULBP1 Transcription.
  324. (2001). proteins to double-strand breaks through distinct mechanisms.
  325. (2002). Proteomic analysis of human metaphase chromosomes reveals topoisomerase IIα as an Aurora B substrate.
  326. (2002). Putative identification of functional interactions between DNA intercalating agents and topoisomerase II using the V79 in vitro micronucleus assay. Mutation Research - Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis,
  327. (1995). Radiation-induced cell cycle arrest compromised by p21 deficiency.
  328. (2003). Radiation-mediated proteolysis of CDT1 by CUL4-ROC1 and CSN complexes constitutes a new checkpoint.
  329. (1981). Radioresistant DNA synthesis - An intrinsic feature of ataxia telangiectasia.
  330. (1989). Radioresistant DNA synthesis and human genetic disease.
  331. (2006). Rapid activation of ATR by ionizing radiation requires ATM and Mre11.
  332. (1999). Rapid ATM-dependent phosphorylation of MDM2 precedes p53 accumulation in response to DNA damage.
  333. (1990). Rapid evaluation of topoisomerase inhibitors: Caffeine inhibition of topoisomerases in vivo Teratogenesis Carcinogenesis and Mutagenesis,
  334. (1997). Rappaport rules: Cleavage furrow induction in animal cells.
  335. (1997). Recent advances in chemoprevention of cancer.
  336. (2000). Recent studies on the biofunctions and biotransformations of curcumin.
  337. (1998). Recognition of stress-induced MHC molecules by intestinal epithelial γδ T cells.
  338. (2007). Reconstitution of a human ATRmediated checkpoint response to damaged DNA.
  339. (2002). Regulation of ATR substrate selection by
  340. (2009). Regulation of centrosome separation in yeast and vertebrates: common threads.
  341. (2004). Regulation of COX2 protein expression by Akt in endometrial cancer cells is mediated through NF-κB/IκB pathway.
  342. (2002). Regulation of G2/M events by Cdc25A through phosphorylationdependent modulation of its stability.
  343. (2006). Regulation of NKG2D ligand gene expression.
  344. (2007). Regulation of polo-like kinase 1 by DNA damage in mitosis - Inhibition of mitotic PLK-1 By protein phosphatase 2A.
  345. (1999). Regulation of the APC and the exit from mitosis.
  346. (2007). Regulation of the expression of
  347. (1998). Regulation of the human p21/WAF1/Cip1 promoter in hepatic cells by functional interactions between Sp1 and Smad family members.
  348. (1991). Regulatory phosphorylation of the p34cdc2 protein kinase in vertebrates.
  349. (2000). Relationship of Ki-ras mutations in colon cancers to tumor location, stage, and survival: A population-based study.
  350. (2010). Relocation of the chromosomal passenger complex prevents mitotic checkpoint engagement at anaphase.
  351. (2003). Replication protein A-mediated recruitment and activation of Rad17 complexes.
  352. (2003). Repression of mRNA for the PLK cell cycle gene after DNA damage requires BRCA1.
  353. (1998). Requirement for p53 and p21 to sustain G2 arrest after DNA damage.
  354. (2006). Resistance to apoptosis of HCW-2 cells can be overcome by curcumin- or vincristine-induced mitotic catastrophe.
  355. (2005). Resveratrol causes Cdc2-tyr15 phosphorylation via ATM/ATR-Chk1/2-Cdc25C pathway as a central mechanism for S phase arrest in human ovarian carcinoma Ovcar-3 cells.
  356. (2010). Resveratrol induces DNA double-strand breaks through human topoisomerase II interaction.
  357. (1984). Retinoblastoma - Clues to human oncogenesis.
  358. (2004). Role of fibroblast growth factor-2 in the expression of matrix metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases in human intestinal myofibroblasts.
  359. (1992). Role of phosphorylation in p34cdc2 activation: identification of an activating kinase.
  360. (1998). Saccharomyces Ku70, Mre11/Rad50, and RPA proteins regulate adaptation to G2/M arrest after DNA damage.
  361. (2010). Safeguarding entry into mitosis: the antephase checkpoint.
  362. (2001). Securin is required for chromosomal stability in human cells.
  363. (2008). Selective induction of expression of a ligand for the NKG2D receptor by proteasome inhibitors.
  364. (2003). Sensing DNA damage through ATRIP recognition of RPA-ssDNA complexes.
  365. (2005). Sensing, signaling, and responding to DNA damage: Organization of the checkpoint pathways in mammalian cells.
  366. (2007). Simultaneous detection of apoptosis and mitochondrial superoxide production in live cells by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy.
  367. (2002). SMC1 is a downstream effector in the ATM/NBS1 branch of the human S-phase checkpoint.
  368. (2001). Specific inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression by dietary curcumin in HT-29 human colon cancer cells.
  369. (1997). Stability of curcumin in buffer solutions and characterization of its degradation products.
  370. (2005). Strong red fluorescent probes suitable for detecting hydrogen peroxide generated by mice peritoneal macrophages.
  371. (2005). Structural chromosomal aberrations in the colon cancer cell line HCT116 - results of investigations based on spectral karyotyping.
  372. (1982). Structural studies of curcuminoids 1. The crystal structure of curcumin.
  373. (1989). Structure activity study of the actions of camptohecin derivatives on mammalian topoisomerase I, evidence for a specific receptor site and for a relation to antitumour activity.
  374. (2009). Structure of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome interacting with a mitotic checkpoint complex.
  375. (1986). Studies on curcumin and curcuminoids 8. Photochemical stability of curcumin. Zeitschrift Fur Lebensmittel-Untersuchung Und-Forschung,
  376. (1989). Sulindac for polyposis of the colon.
  377. (2004). Sulindac targets nuclear β-catenin accumulation and Wnt signalling in adenomas of patients with familial adenomatous polyposis and in human colorectal cancer cell lines.
  378. (1996). Suppression of intestinal polyposis in Apc(Δ716) knockout mice by inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2).
  379. (2006). Surviving the breakup: The DNA damage checkpoint.
  380. (2007). Targeted antimitotic therapies: can we improve on tubulin agents?
  381. (1982). Taxol binds to cellular microtubules
  382. (1999). Temporal and spatial control of cyclin B1 destruction in metaphase.
  383. (2005). The anaphasepromoting complex: a key factor in the regulation of cell cycle.
  384. (2010). The APC/C recruits cyclin B1-Cdk1-Cks in prometaphase before D box recognition to control mitotic exit.
  385. (1999). The ataxia-telangiectasia related protein ATR mediates DNA-dependent phosphorylation of p53.
  386. (2001). The ATMChk2-Cdc25A checkpoint pathway guards against radioresistant DNA synthesis.
  387. (1998). The Cdc25B phosphatase is essential for the G2/M phase transition in human cells.
  388. (2000). The Cdt1 protein is required to license DNA for replication in fission yeast.
  389. (1997). The checkpoint control for anaphase onset does not monitor excess numbers of spindle poles or bipolar spindle symmetry.
  390. (1995). The checkpoint delaying anaphase in response to chromosome monoorientation is mediated by an inhibitory signal produced by unattached kinetochores.
  391. (2002). The checkpoint protein CHFR is a ligase that ubiquitinates
  392. (2007). The chemopreventive polyphenol curcumin prevents hematogenous breast cancer metastases in immunodeficient mice.
  393. (2005). The CHFR mitotic checkpoint protein delays cell cycle progression by excluding cyclin B1 from the nucleus.
  394. (2000). The Chk1 protein kinase and the Cdc25C regulatory pathways are targets of the anticancer agent UCN-01.
  395. (2008). The chromosomal passenger complex and the spindle assembly checkpoint: kinetochore-microtubule error correction and beyond.
  396. (2004). The chromosomal passenger complex is required for chromatin-induced microtubule stabilization and spindle assembly.
  397. (1932). The classification of cancer of the rectum.
  398. (2006). The conserved KMN network constitutes the core microtubule-binding site of the kinetochore.
  399. (1995). The cyclosome, a large complex containing cyclin-selective ubiquitin ligase activity, targets cyclins for destruction at the end of mitosis.
  400. (2002). The danger model: A renewed sense of self.
  401. (2010). The dark side of curcumin.
  402. (2007). The decatenation checkpoint.
  403. (2005). The DNA damage pathway regulates innate immune system ligands of the NKG2D receptor.
  404. (1999). The DNA double-strand break repair gene hMRE11 is mutated in individuals with an ataxia-telangiectasia-like disorder.
  405. (2003). The dynamic mobility of histone H1 is regulated by cyclin/CDK phosphorylation.
  406. (1993). The force-producing mechanism for centrosome separation during spindle formation in vertebrates is intrinsic to each aster.
  407. (1982). The formation, structure, and composition of the mammalian kinetochore and kinetochore fiber.
  408. (2008). The global burden of disease:
  409. (2000). The hallmarks of cancer.
  410. (1998). The hMre11/hRad50 protein complex and Nijmegen breakage syndrome: Linkage of double-strand break repair to the cellular DNA damage response.
  411. (2000). The human homologs of checkpoint kinases
  412. (1993). The human mutator gene homolog MSH2 and its association with hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer.
  413. (1997). The human MYT1 kinase preferentially phosphorylates Cdc2 on threonine 14 and localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complex.
  414. (1987). The inner centromere protein (INCENP) antigens: movement from inner centromere to midbody during mitosis.
  415. (2001). the marine sponge alkaloid debromohymenialdisine.
  416. (1992). The mdm-2 oncogene product forms a complex with the p53 protein and inhibits p53-mediated transactivation.
  417. (2004). The mechanism, function and regulation of depolymerizing kinesins during mitosis.
  418. (2010). The mismatch repair system modulates curcumin sensitivity through induction of DNA strand breaks and activation of G2-M checkpoint.
  419. (2005). The mitotic spindle checkpoint is a critical determinant for topoisomerase-based chemotherapy.
  420. (2006). The NoCut pathway links completion of cytokinesis to spindle midzone funiction to prevent chromosome breakage.
  421. (2005). The p38-mediated stressactivated checkpoint - A rapid response system for delaying progression through antephase and entry into mitosis.
  422. (2009). The Polo-like kinase 1 regulates Cdc25B-dependent mitosis entry.
  423. (2004). The progression and regulation of mitotic events.
  424. (2007). The Rad9-Hus1-Rad1 (9-1-1) clamp activates checkpoint signaling via TopBP1. Genes &
  425. (2000). The Rel/NF-κB family directly activates expression of the apoptosis inhibitor Bcl-x(L). Molecular and Cellular
  426. (1996). The relationship of HsEg5 and the actin cytoskeleton to centrosome separation.
  427. (2010). The role of pRB, p16 and cyclin D1 in colonic carcinogenesis.
  428. (2001). The role of the DNA mismatch
  429. (2003). The small molecule Hesperadin reveals a role for Aurora B in correcting kinetochore-microtubule attachment and in maintaining the spindle assembly checkpoint.
  430. (2007). The spindle-assembly checkpoint in space and time.
  431. (2007). The structural determinants of checkpoint activation.
  432. (1992). The Wee1 protein kinase is required for radiation-induced mitotic delay.
  433. (1995). Therapy-related acute leukemia associated with t(11q23) after primary myeloid acute leukemia with t(8;21) - a report of two cases.
  434. (1993). Therapy-related myelodysplasia and acute myeloid leukemia. Cytogenetic characteristics of 115 consecutive cases and risk in 7 cohorts of patients treated intensively for malignant diseases in the Copenhagen series
  435. (2004). Time- and dose-dependent effects of curcumin on gene expression in human colon cancer cells.
  436. (1997). TNM Classification of Malignant Tumours,
  437. (2004). Topoisomerase II and histone deacetylase inhibitors delay the G2/M transition by triggering the p38 MAPK checkpoint pathway.
  438. (2004). Topoisomerase II: untangling its contribution at the centromere.
  439. (2001). Topoisomerase IImediated cleavage of plasmid DNA.
  440. (2009). Topoisomerase IIα controls the decatenation checkpoint.
  441. (1996). Topoisomerase IIα is associated with the mammalian centromere in a cell cycle and species-specific manner and is required for proper centromere/kinetochore structure.
  442. (2006). Transport of liposomal and albumin loaded curcumin to living cells: An absorption and fluorescence spectroscopic study.
  443. (2008). Trends and inequalities in survival for 20 cancers in England and Wales 1986-2001: population-based analyses and clinical commentaries.
  444. (2002). Tumorigenesis - RAF/RAS oncogenes and mismatchrepair status.
  445. (2001). Two checkpoint complexes are independently recruited to sites of DNA damage in vivo.
  446. (1989). Tyrosine phosphorylation of the fission yeast cdc2+ protein kinase regulates entry into mitosis.
  447. (1999). Whose end is destruction: cell division and the anaphase-promoting complex.
  448. (2008). Wild-type BRAF is required for response to Panitumumab or Cetuximab in metastatic colorectal cancer.
  449. (1996). Wnt-1 regulates free pools of catenins and stabilizes APC-catenin complexes.
  450. (2005). γ-H2AX dephosphorylation by protein phosphatase 2A facilitates DNA double-strand break repair.
  451. (2006). γH2AX and MDC1: Anchoring the DNA-damageresponse machinery to broken chromosomes.

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.