Skip to main content
Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

Ground-Based Optical Measurements at European Flux Sites: A Review of Methods, Instruments and Current Controversies

By Manuela Balzarolo, Karen Anderson, Caroline Nichol, Micol Rossini, Loris Vescovo, Nicola Arriga, Georg Wohlfahrt, Jean-Christophe Calvet, Arnaud Carrara, Sofia Cerasoli, Sergio Cogliati, Fabrice Daumard, Lars Eklundh, Jan A. Elbers, Fatih Evrendilek, Rebecca N. Handcock, Jörg Kaduk, Katja Klumpp, Bernard Longdoz, Giorgio Matteucci, Michele Meroni, Leonardo Montagnani, Jean-Marc Ourcival, Enrique P. Sánchez-Cañete, Jean-Yves Pontailler, Radoslaw Juszczak, Bob Scholes and Maria Pilar Martín


This paper reviews the currently available optical sensors, their limitations and opportunities for deployment at Eddy Covariance (EC) sites in Europe. This review is based on the results obtained from an online survey designed and disseminated by the Co-cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) Action ESO903—“Spectral Sampling Tools for Vegetation Biophysical Parameters and Flux Measurements in Europe” that provided a complete view on spectral sampling activities carried out within the different research teams in European countries. The results have highlighted that a wide variety of optical sensors are in use at flux sites across Europe, and responses further demonstrated that users were not always fully aware of the key issues underpinning repeatability and the reproducibility of their spectral measurements. The key findings of this survey point towards the need for greater awareness of the need for standardisation and development of a common protocol of optical sampling at the European EC sites.Peer-reviewedPublisher Versio

Topics: optical measurements, sensors, protocol standardisation, European flux networks
Publisher: MDPI Publishing
Year: 2011
DOI identifier: 10.3390/s110807954
OAI identifier:

Suggested articles


  1. (2009). 3S: A Novel Program for Field Spectroscopy. doi
  2. (2010). A Field Platform for Continuous Measurement of Canopy Fluorescence. doi
  3. (2006). A Mobile Tram System for Systematic Sampling of Ecosystem Optical Properties. Remote Sens. Environ. doi
  4. (2006). A Multi-Angle Spectrometer for Automatic Measurement of Plant Canopy Reflectance Spectra. Remote Sens. Environ. doi
  5. (1992). A Narrow-Waveband Spectral Index that Tracks Diurnal Changes in Photosynthetic Efficiency. Remote Sens. Environ. doi
  6. A New, Automated, Multi-Angular Radiometer Instrument for Tower-Based Observation of Canopy Reflectance (AMSPEC II). doi
  7. A Simple Filtered Photodiode Instrument for Continuous Measurement of Narrowband NDVI and PRI over Vegetated Canopies. doi
  8. (2008). A Simple Semi-Analytical Model for Remote Estimation of Chlorophyll-a in Turbidwaters: Validation. Remote Sens. Environ. doi
  9. (2011). An Optical Sensor Network for Vegetation Phenology Monitoring and Satellite Data Calibration. Sensors doi
  10. (2000). Atmospheric Correction Algorithm for Hyperspectral Remote Sensing of Ocean Color from Space. doi
  11. (2006). Calibration of Dual-Beam Spectroradiometric Data. doi
  12. (2003). Calibration of Remotely Sensed, Coarse Resolution NDVI to CO2 Fluxes in a Sagebrush-Steppe Ecosystem. Remote Sens. Environ. doi
  13. (2007). Can We Measure Terrestrial Photosynthesis from Space Directly, Using Spectral Reflectance and Fluorescence? Global Change Biol. doi
  14. Characterization of Fine Resolution Field Spectrometers Using Solar Fraunhofer Lines and Atmospheric Absorption Features. doi
  15. (2009). Comparison of Satellite- and Ground-Based NDVI above Different Land-Use Types. doi
  16. (2006). Comparison of Spectral Indices Obtained Using Multiple Spectroradiometers. Remote Sens. Environ. doi
  17. (2010). Deciphering the Components of Regional Net Ecosystem Fluxes Following a Bottom-Up Approach for the Iberian Peninsula. Biogeosciences doi
  18. (2007). Determining Vegetation Indices from Solar and Photosynthetically Active Radiation Fluxes. Agr. Forest Meteorol. doi
  19. (2009). Ecosystem Carbon Fluxes and Canopy Spectral Reflectance of a Mountain Meadow. doi
  20. (1997). Effects of Spectral, Spatial, and Radiometric Characteristics on Remote Sensing Vegetation Indices of Forested Regions. Remote Sens. Environ. doi
  21. Environmental Sensor Networks for Vegetation, Animal and Soil Sciences. doi
  22. (2010). Estimating Carbon Dioxide Fluxes from Temperate Mountain Grasslands Using Broad-Band Vegetation Indices. Biogeosciences doi
  23. (2010). Estimation of Gross Ecosystem Production by Hyperspectral Measurements in Terrestrial Ecosystems. doi
  24. (2003). Estimation of Leaf Area Index Using Ground-Based Remote Sensed NDVI Measurements: Validation and Comparison with Two Indirect Techniques. doi
  25. (2004). Evaluation of Seasonal Variation of MODIS Derived Leaf Area Index at Two European Deciduous Broadleaf Forest Sites. Remote Sens. Environ. doi
  26. Field Experiments to Test the Use of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index for Phenology Detection. doi
  27. (2001). FLUXNET: A New Tool to Study the Temporal and Spatial Variability of Ecosystem-Scale Carbon Dioxide, Water Vapour, and Energy Flux Densities. doi
  28. (2002). Footprint Modeling for Vegetation Atmosphere Exchange Studies: A Review and Perspective. doi
  29. (1999). High Temporal Resolution NDVI Phenology from Micrometeorological Radiation Sensors. doi
  30. (2007). Instrumentation and Approach for Unattended Year round Tower Based Measurements of Spectral Reflectance. doi
  31. (2008). Multiple Quality Tests for Analyzing CO2 Fluxes in a Beech Temperate Forest. Biogeosciences doi
  32. (2008). Normalized difference spectral indices for estimating photosynthetic efficiency and capacity at a canopy scale derived from hyperspectral and CO2 flux measurements in Rice. Remote Sens. Environ. doi
  33. (2010). Observed and Modeled Ecosystem Respiration and Gross Primary Production of a Grassland in Southwestern France. Biogeosciences doi
  34. (2011). On the Reproducibility of Field Measured Reflectance Factors in the Context of Vegetation Studies. Remote Sens. Environ. doi
  35. (2009). On Ultraviolet Spectrometers for Volcanic SO2 Measurements. Sensors doi
  36. (2004). Optimal Determination of the Parameters Controlling Biospheric CO2 Fluxes over Europe Using Eddy Covariance Fluxes and Satellite NDVI Measurements. Tellus doi
  37. (2007). Progress in Field Spectroscopy. Remote Sens. Environ. doi
  38. (1995). Radiometric Characterisation of Diode Array Field Spectroradiometers. Remote Sens. Environ. doi
  39. (2007). Refining Light-Use Efficiency Calculations for a Deciduous Forest Canopy Using Simultaneous Tower-Based Carbon Flux and Radiometric Measurements. Agr. Forest Meteorol. doi
  40. (2006). Reflectance Quantities in Optical Remote Sensing—Definitions and Case Studies. Remote Sens. Environ. doi
  41. (2004). Scaling Net Primary Production to a MODIS Footprint in Support of Earth Observing System Product Validation. doi
  42. (2006). Sensitivity of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Terrestrial Primary Production to the Accuracy of Meteorological Reanalyses. doi
  43. (2010). SpecNet Revisited: Bridging Flux and Remote Sensing Communities. doi
  44. (2006). Spectral Network (SpecNet): What Is It and Why Do We Need It? Remote Sens. Environ. doi
  45. (2006). Spectral Vegetation Indices and Uncertainty: Insights from a User’s Perspective. doi
  46. (2011). Testing the Performance of a Novel Spectral Reflectance Sensor, Built with Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs), to Monitor Ecosystem Metabolism, Structure and Function. doi
  47. (2006). The Carbon Budget of a Semiarid Grassland in a Wet and a Dry Year in Hungary. doi
  48. The HyperSpectral Irradiometer HSI, a New Instrument for Long-Term and Unattended Field Spectroscopy Measurements. doi
  49. (2011). Using Eddy Covariance Sensors to Quantify Carbon Metabolism of Peatlands: A Case Study in Turkey. Sensors doi

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.