Location of Repository

The Impact of Chemoprevention on Treatment Regimens for Non-Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer

By Jennifer Ann Higgins

Abstract

Chemoprevention is becoming a highly promising approach to lowering the incidence of cancers. There is, however, insufficient data to determine whether these agents are safe to be used alongside established treatment regimens such as chemotherapy.\ud Non-muscle invasive bladder cancer is readily treatable with surgery (TURBT), yet there is a high rate of recurrence (~60%), 20-30% of patients recurring with the muscle invasive form of the disease, making it a good candidate for chemopreventive intervention. Anthocyanins are one example of dietary compounds currently under investigation as chemopreventive agents. They have been found excreted in the urine of mice at levels capable of causing 50% growth inhibition in cancer cell lines, making them potential bladder cancer chemopreventive agents.\ud Mirtoselect, a standardised bilberry extract containing a mixture of 15 different anthocyanins, was investigated in vitro as a potential chemopreventive agent for bladder cancer alongside chemotherapeutic agent mitomycin C (MMC). Mirtoselect itself was found to inhibit cell survival and growth, causing significant a decrease in clonogenic cell survival, as well as causing an increase in apoptosis in two of the bladder cancer cell lines investigated.\ud In combined studies mirtoselect pre-treatment did not inhibit the effects of MMC in measures of growth, cell survival, apoptosis, cell cycle distribution or DNA damage. In fact, there was a mirtoselect dependent increase in MMC-induced crosslinks, an enhancement of MMCs anti-proliferative effects at low concentrations of mirtoselect and in some instances apoptosis was greater than additive. Furthermore mirtoselect was shown to enhance the DNA damaging effects of radiation.\ud Mirtoselect itself appears to be a good chemopreventive candidate for non-muscle invasive bladder cancer. In combination it does not appear to interfere with the cytotoxic actions of MMC, potentially enhancing its effects, and could also provide a therapeutic advantage in radiotherapy, therefore warranting further investigation for use in clinic

Publisher: University of Leicester
Year: 2011
OAI identifier: oai:lra.le.ac.uk:2381/9527

Suggested articles

Preview

Citations

  1. (2007). 2-Arylidenedihydroindole-3-ones: design, synthesis, and biological activity on bladder carcinoma cell lines.
  2. (2005). A biomimetic tissue from cultured normal human urothelial cells: analysis of physiological function.
  3. (1993). A double-blind, randomized, prospective trial to evaluate topical vitamin C solution for the prevention of radiation dermatitis.
  4. (1978). A general mechanism for microsomal activation of quinone anticancer agents to free radicals.
  5. (2007). A homogeneous assay to measure live and dead cells in the same sample by detecting different protease markers.
  6. (2000). A long twentieth century of the cell cycle and beyond.
  7. (1995). A novel assay for apoptosis. Flow cytometric detection of phosphatidylserine expression on early apoptotic cells using fluorescein labelled Annexin V.
  8. (2005). A randomized trial of antioxidant vitamins to prevent second primary cancers in head and neck cancer patients.
  9. (1955). A Rapid Method for Viable Cell Titration and Clone Production with Hela Cells in Tissue Culture: the use of X-Irradiated Cells to Supply Conditioning Factors.
  10. (1991). A rapid non-radioactive fluorescence assay for the measurement of both cell number and proliferation.
  11. (1988). A simple technique for quantitation of low levels of DNA damage in individual cells.
  12. (1996). Abrogation of apoptosis induced by DNA-damaging agents in human bladder-cancer cell lines with p21/WAF1/CIP1 and/or p53 gene alterations.
  13. (2004). Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma reverses squamous metaplasia and induces transitional differentiation in normal human urothelial cells.
  14. (2007). Activation of the S phase DNA damage checkpoint by mitomycin C.
  15. (1995). Adjuvant treatment with a vitamin A analogue (etretinate) after transurethral resection of superficial bladder tumors. Final analysis of a prospective, randomized multicenter trial in Switzerland.
  16. (2000). Adriamycin induced G2/M cell cycle arrest in transitional cell cancer cells with wt p53 and p21(WAF1/CIP1) genes.
  17. (2002). Alice in caspase land. A phylogenetic analysis of caspases from worm to man.
  18. (2005). and Adenomatous Polyp Prevention on Vioxx (APPROVe) Trial Investigators,
  19. (2001). and American Cancer Society Workgroup on Nutrition and Physical Activity for Cancer Survivors,
  20. (1998). Annexin V-affinity assay: a review on an apoptosis detection system based on phosphatidylserine exposure.
  21. (2007). Anthocyanin fraction from potato extracts is cytotoxic to prostate cancer cells through activation of caspase-dependent and caspase-independent pathways.
  22. (2003). Anthocyanin glycosides from berry fruit are absorbed and excreted unmetabolized by both humans and rats.
  23. (2003). Anthocyanin-rich extract from Aronia meloncarpa E induces a cell cycle block in colon cancer but not normal colonic cells.
  24. (1997). Anthocyanins as natural food colours—selected aspects.
  25. (2007). Anthocyanins from red cabbage – stability to simulated gastrointestinal digestion.
  26. (2004). Anthocyanins induce cell cycle perturbations and apoptosis in different human cell lines.
  27. (2005). Anthocyans from fruits and vegetables--does bright colour signal cancer chemopreventive activity?
  28. (1998). Anthracycline-derived chemotherapeutics in apoptosis and free radical cytotoxicity (Review).
  29. (1997). Anthracyclines in the treatment of cancer. An overview.
  30. (1993). Anticarcinogenic effect of common carotenoids.
  31. (1998). Antioxidant Capacity As Influenced by Total Phenolic and Anthocyanin Content, Maturity, and Variety of Vaccinium Species.
  32. (1997). Antioxidant enzyme levels in cancer.
  33. (1996). Antioxidant supplementation decreases oxidative DNA damage in human lymphocytes.
  34. (1999). Antioxidants in cancer therapy; their actions and interactions with oncologic therapies.
  35. (2001). Antioxidants, programmed cell death, and cancer.
  36. (2007). Antiproliferative activity of cisplatin detected by CFSE in p53-proficient and p53-deficient cells.
  37. (2009). Antiproliferative and antioxidant activities of common vegetables: A comparative study.
  38. (2004). Apoptosis in human cancer cells.
  39. (2000). Apoptosis in neurodegenerative disorders.
  40. (2004). Architectural organization machinary for transcription, replication, and repair: dynamic temporal-spatial parameters of cell cycle control.
  41. (2001). Aspirin for primary prevention of coronary heart disease: safety and absolute benefit related to coronary risk derived from meta-analysis of randomised trials.
  42. (1972). Asymmetrical lipid bilayer structure for biological membranes.
  43. (2008). Berries as chemopreventive dietary constituents--a mechanistic approach with the ApcMin/+ mouse. Asia Pac.J.Clin.Nutr.,
  44. (2007). Berry phenolic extracts modulate the expression of p21(WAF1) and Bax but not Bcl-2 in HT-29 colon cancer cells.
  45. (2007). Berry phytochemicals, genomic stability and cancer: evidence for chemoprotection at several stages in the carcinogenic process.
  46. (2006). Bioavailability of a bilberry anthocyanin extract and its impact on plasma antioxidant capacity in rats.
  47. (2010). Biological activity of celecoxib in the bronchial epithelium of current and former smokers.
  48. (2002). Bladder cancer: epidemiology, diagnosis, and management.
  49. (1997). Bladder cancer: natural history, tumor markers, and early detection strategies.
  50. (2000). Bladder-cancer incidence in relation to vegetable and fruit consumption: a prospective study of atomic-bomb survivors.
  51. (2006). Bladder-sparing approaches to invasive disease.
  52. (1995). Breast Cancer Incidence in Asian Migrants to the United States and Their Descendants.
  53. (2010). Breast Cancer Prevention Trials: Large and Small Trials.
  54. (2009). Can dietary agents be safely used as chemopreventive agents in bladder cancer? Presentation at the 32nd Annual Meeting of UKEMS,
  55. (2000). Cancer biology. 2nd Edition.
  56. (2003). Cancer chemoprevention with dietary phytochemicals.
  57. (2005). Cancer chemoprevention: lessons learned and future directions.
  58. Cardiovascular events associated with rofecoxib in a colorectal adenoma chemoprevention trial.
  59. (2004). Carotenoids/vitamin C and smoking-related bladder cancer.
  60. (2010). Caspase-7: a protease involved in apoptosis and inflammation.
  61. (2005). Celecoxib and curcumin synergistically inhibit the growth of colorectal cancer cells.
  62. (2000). Cell cycle and growth regulation. In: Genes VII,
  63. (1997). Cell cycle changes associated with formation of Pt-DNA adducts in human ovarian carcinoma cells with different cisplatin sensitivity.
  64. (2004). Cell fates. In: Cell cycle and growth control: biomolecular regulation and cancer,
  65. (1999). Cell growth and cytotoxicity assays. In: Cell growth, differentiation and senescence: a practical approach,
  66. (2003). Cell sensitivity assays: Clongenic assay. In: Cancer cell culture: methods and protocols,
  67. (2006). Chemoprevention for bladder cancer.
  68. (2006). Chemoprevention of bladder cancer.
  69. (1997). Chemoprevention of human cancer: biology and therapy.
  70. (2000). Chemoprevention: general perspective.
  71. (2005). Chemosensitivity: In vitro assays.
  72. (2000). Cigarette smoking and bladder cancer in men: A pooled analysis of 11 casecontrol studies.
  73. (2000). Clinical applications of quinone-containing alkylating agents.
  74. (1996). Clonal analysis of human recurrent superficial bladder cancer by immunohistochemistry of P53 and retinoblastoma proteins.
  75. (1992). Clonal origin bladder cancer.
  76. (2004). Clonogenic assay with established human tumour xenografts: correlation of in vitro to in vivo activity as a basis for anticancer drug discovery.
  77. (2001). Colorectal cancer chemoprevention: biochemical targets and clinical development of promising agents.
  78. (2000). Combined RAF1 protein expression and p53 mutational status provides a strong predictor of cellular radiosensitivity.
  79. (2003). Comet assay and flow cytometry analysis of DNA repair in normal and cancer cells treated with known mutagens with different mechanisms of action.
  80. (1997). Comet assay in human biomonitoring studies: reliability, validation, and applications.
  81. (2008). Comparison of delphinidin, quercetin and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate as inhibitors of the EGFR and ErbB2 receptor phosphorylation.
  82. (2006). Concentrations of anthocyanins in common foods in the United States and estimation of normal consumption.
  83. (2005). Concomitant chemoradiotherapy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer: the way forward for bladder preservation?
  84. (1992). CpG islands as gene markers in the human genome.
  85. (2007). Curcumin and quercetin combined with cisplatin to induce apoptosis in human laryngeal carcinoma hep-2 cells through the mitochondrial pathway.
  86. (2010). Curcumin potentiates the antitumor effects of gemcitabine in an orthotopic model of human bladder cancer through suppression of proliferative and angiogenic biomarkers.
  87. (2005). Cyanidin 3-glucoside and peonidin 3-glucoside inhibit tumor cell growth and induce apoptosis in vitro and suppress tumor growth in vivo.
  88. (2007). Cyanidin-3-rutinoside, a natural polyphenol antioxidant, selectively kills leukemic cells by induction of oxidative stress.
  89. (2004). Cyanidins: metabolism and biological properties.
  90. (2005). Cyclins and cdks in development and cancer: a perspective.
  91. (1999). Cytogenetic monoclonality in multifocal uroepithelial carcinomas: evidence of intraluminal tumour seeding.
  92. (2001). Degradation products of cyanidin glycosides from tart cherries and their bioactivities.
  93. (2005). Delphinidin 3-sambubioside, a Hibiscus anthocyanin, induces apoptosis in human leukemia cells through reactive oxygen species-mediated mitochondrial pathway.
  94. (1999). Detection of crosslinks with the comet assay in relationship to genotoxicity and cytotoxicity.
  95. (1996). Detection of DNA-crosslinking agents with the alkaline comet assay.
  96. (2006). Detection of oxaliplatin-induced DNA crosslinks in vitro and in cancer patients using the alkaline comet assay.
  97. (2010). Determination of anthocyanins in the urine of patients with colorectal liver metastases after administration of bilberry extract.
  98. (1994). Determination of lymphocyte division by flow cytometry.
  99. (1998). Development of an ultrasensitive in vitro assay to monitor growth of primary cell cultures with reduced mitotic activity. J.Immunol.Methods,
  100. (1991). Dietary factors in cancer of the lower urinary tract.
  101. (2009). Distribution and excretion of bilberry anthocyanines in mice.
  102. (2009). DNA damage of macrophages at an air-tissue interface induced by metal nanoparticles.
  103. (2000). DNA replication is required to elicit cellular responses to psoralen-induced DNA interstrand cross-links. Mol.Cell.Biol.,
  104. (2005). DNA stability and lipid peroxidation in vitamin E-deficient rats in vivo and colon cells in vitro--modulation by the dietary anthocyanin, cyanidin-3-glycoside.
  105. (1990). Duplex oligodeoxyribonucleotides crosslinked by mitomycin C at a single site: synthesis, properties, and crosslink.
  106. (2009). Effect of broccoli intake on markers related to oxidative stress and cancer risk in healthy smokers and nonsmokers.
  107. (2006). Effect of cyanidin-3-glucoside and an anthocyanin mixture from bilberry on adenoma development in the ApcMin mouse model of intestinal carcinogenesis--relationship with tissue anthocyanin levels.
  108. (2010). Effect of daily aspirin on long-term risk of death due to cacner: analysis of individual patient data from randomised trials.
  109. (2009). Effect of vitamin levels on biomarkers of exposure and oxidative damage-The EXPAH study.
  110. (2005). Effects of anthocyanidin on the inhibition of proliferation and induction of apoptosis in human gastric adenocarcinoma cells.
  111. (2004). Effects of commercial anthocyanin-rich extracts on colonic cancer and nontumorigenic colonic cell growth.
  112. (2001). Effects of lyophilized black raspberries on azoxymethane-induced colon cancer and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine levels in the Fischer 344 rat.
  113. (2007). Enhanced repair of DNA interstrand crosslinking in ovarian cancer cells from patients following treatment with platinum-based chemotherapy.
  114. (2006). Enhanced repair of DNA interstrand crosslinks in S phase.
  115. (2004). Enhancement of radiation sensitivity of human squamous carcinoma cells by histone deacetylase inhibitors.
  116. (2000). Epidemiology and etiology of premalignant and malignant urothelial changes.
  117. (2001). ERCC1 and thymidylate synthase mRNA levels predict survival for colorectal cancer patients receiving combination oxaliplatin and fluorouracil chemotherapy. J.Clin.Oncol.,
  118. (2005). Estimate of deaths attributable to passive smoking among UK adults: database analysis.
  119. (1991). Evaluation of the alkaline comet assay as a predictive test of invasive bladder cancer treatment: Prediction of bladder cancer cell radiosensitivity and chemosensitivity [abstract]. In:
  120. (2004). Evaluation of the therapeutic potential of the epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor gefitinib in preclinical models of bladder cancer.
  121. (2006). Experimental models of human bladder carcinogenesis.
  122. (1994). Expression of epidermal growth-factor receptor in bladder-cancer as related to established prognostic factors, oncoprotein (C-Erbb2, P53) expression and long-term prognosis.
  123. (2007). Extended treatment with physiologic concentrations of dietary phytochemicals results in altered gene expression, reduced growth, and apoptosis of cancer cells.
  124. (1992). Factors influencing DNA migration from individual cells subjected to gel electrophoresis. Exp.Cell Res.,
  125. (2001). Factors influencing the measurement of bioavailability, taking calcium as a model. J.Nutr., 131(4 Suppl),
  126. (1992). Features of apoptotic cells measured by flow cytometry.
  127. (2003). Flavonoids: promising anticancer agents.
  128. (1982). Flow cytometric characterization of the response of Fanconi's anemia cells to mitomycin C treatment.
  129. (2000). Flow cytometry of apoptotic cell death. J.Immunol.Methods,
  130. (2001). Flow cytometry: first principles. 2nd Edition.
  131. (2005). Formation of DNA interstrand cross-links as a marker of Mitomycin C bioreductive activation and chemosensitivity.
  132. (1999). Fruit and vegetable intake and incidence of bladder cancer in a male prospective cohort.
  133. (2004). Gefitinib ('Iressa', ZD1839) inhibits the growth response of bladder tumour cell lines to epidermal growth factor and induces TIMP2.
  134. (2007). Gene expression of ERCC1 as a novel prognostic marker in advanced bladder cancer patients receiving cisplatinbased chemotherapy.
  135. (2004). Heterogeneous cell response to topotecan in a CFSE-based proliferation test.
  136. (2009). In vitro viability and cytotoxicity testing and same-well multi-parametric combinations for high throughput screening.
  137. (2005). Inactivation of nuclear factor kappaB by soy isoflavone genistein contributes to increased apoptosis induced by chemotherapeutic agents in human cancer cells.
  138. (2003). Incidence of cancer and mortality following alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene supplementation: a postintervention follow-up.
  139. (1999). Indole-3-carbinol and tamoxifen cooperate to arrest the cell cycle of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells.
  140. (2000). Induction of apoptosis by mitomycin-C in an ex vivo model of bladder cancer.
  141. (2003). Induction of apoptosis in cancer cells by Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) and the anthocyanins.
  142. (1997). Influence of flavonoids on cell cycle phase as analyzed by flow-cytometry.
  143. (1983). Influence of thiotepa and doxorubicin instillation at time of transurethral surgical treatment of bladder cancer on tumor recurrence: a prospective, randomized, double-blind, controlled trial.
  144. (2004). Inhibition of cancer cell proliferation in vitro by fruit and berry extracts and correlations with antioxidant levels.
  145. (2003). Inhibition of histone deacetylase increases cytotoxicity to anticancer drugs targeting DNA.
  146. (2008). Inhibition of urinary bladder carcinogenesis by broccoli sprouts.
  147. (2010). Inhibitory effect of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), resveratrol, and curcumin on proliferation of human retinal pigment epithelial cells in vitro.
  148. (1998). Inhibitory effect of tomato juice on rat urinary bladder carcinogenesis after N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine initiation.
  149. (2006). Intact anthocyanins and metabolites in rat urine and plasma after 3 months of anthocyanin supplementation.
  150. (2003). Intravesical therapy of superficial bladder cancer.
  151. (2009). Introducing a true internal standard for the Comet assay to minimise intra- and inter-experiment variability in measures of DNA damage and repair.
  152. (1992). Isolation and structure of an intrastrand cross-link adduct of mitomycin C and DNA.
  153. (1998). Isolation of bioactive constituents from Vaccinium myrtillus (bilberry) fruits and cell cultures.
  154. (2009). Levels of prostaglandin E metabolite and leukotriene E(4) are increased in the urine of smokers: evidence that celecoxib shunts arachidonic acid into the 5-lipoxygenase pathway.
  155. (2010). Limitations of MTT and MTS-based assays for measurement of antiproliferative activity of green tea polyphenols.
  156. (2007). Limited stability in cell culture medium and hydrogen peroxide formation affect the growth inhibitory properties of delphinidin and its degradation product gallic acid.
  157. (1979). Lipid asymmetry in membranes.
  158. (1995). Long-term outcome related to epidermal growth-factor receptor status in bladder-cancer.
  159. (2005). Low dose suramin as a chemosensitizer of bladder cancer to mitomycin C.
  160. (1999). Measurement of DNA cross-linking in patients on ifosfamide therapy using the single cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay.
  161. (1994). Megadose vitamins in bladder cancer: a double-blind clinical trial.
  162. (1994). Messenger RNA levels of XPAC and ERCC1 in ovarian cancer tissue correlate with response to platinum-based chemotherapy.
  163. (1993). Metachronous multifocal development of urothelial cancers by intraluminal seeding.
  164. (1984). Microelectrophoretic study of radiation-induced DNA damages in individual mammalian cells.
  165. (1993). Migration patterns and breast cancer risk in Asian-American women.
  166. (2008). Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species affect sensitivity to curcumininduced apoptosis.
  167. (1976). Mitomycin C: a review.
  168. (1993). Mitomycin therapy in gastric cancer.
  169. (1985). Mitomycin: ten years after approval for marketing.
  170. (2006). Modulation of cellular radiation responses by histone deacetylase inhibitors.
  171. (2004). Modulation of DNA repair in vitro after treatment with chemotherapeutic agents by the epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor gefitinib (ZD1839).
  172. (2002). Molecular biology of Fanconi anaemia-an old problem, a new insight.
  173. (2004). Molecular mechanisms of mammalian DNA repair and the DNA damage checkpoints.
  174. (1996). Molecular screening of multifocal transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder using p53 mutations as biomarkers.
  175. (2010). Mulberry Fruit (Moris fructus) Extracts Induce Human Glioma Cell Death In Vitro Through ROS-Dependent Mitochondrial Pathway and Inhibits Glioma Tumor Growth In Vivo.
  176. Multiple end-point analysis reveals cisplatin damage tolerance to be a chemoresistance mechanism in a NSCLC model: implications for predictive testing.
  177. (2003). National diet and nutrition survey. (Food standards agency). http://www.food.gov.uk/science/dietarysurveys:
  178. (2008). National diet and nutrition survey. (National food standards agency). http://www.food.gov.uk/science/dietarysurveys:
  179. (1990). New fluorescent dyes for lymphocyte migration studies. Analysis by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy.
  180. (1994). Normal human urothelial cells in vitro: proliferation and induction of stratification.
  181. (1996). Nutrient intake in relation to bladder cancer among middle-aged men and women.
  182. (2010). Office for national statistics,
  183. (2004). Oncogenes. In: Cell cycle and growth control: biomolecular regulation and cancer,
  184. (2003). Oxidative damage to DNA: formation, measurement and biochemical features.
  185. (2004). Oxidative DNA damage and disease: induction, repair and significance.
  186. (1999). Oxidative DNA damage, antioxidants, and cancer.
  187. (2003). Oxygen radical absorbing capacity of phenolics in blueberries, cranberries, chokeberries, and lingonberries.
  188. (2004). p53 tumor-suppressor genes. In: Cell cycle and growth control: biomolecular regulation and cancer,
  189. (2006). Parental lung cancer as predictor of cancer risks in offspring: clues about multiple routes of harmful influence?
  190. (2009). Pilot study of oral anthocyanins for colorectal cancer chemoprevention.
  191. (1991). Platinum-DNA damage in leukocyte DNA of patients receiving carboplatin and cisplatin chemotherapy, measured by atomic absorption spectrometry.
  192. (2004). Post-translational modification of p53 in tumorigenesis.
  193. (2008). Potential use of the comet assay in the clinical management of cancer.
  194. (2010). Preventative and therapeutic strategies for cancer stem cells. In: Cancer stem cells, Farrar,W.ed.
  195. (1990). Prevention of second primary tumors with isotretinoin in squamous-cell carcinoma of the head and neck.
  196. (1977). Primary bioassay of human tumor stem cells.
  197. (1991). Principles and practice of DNA filter elution.
  198. (2005). Proanthocyanidin from grape seeds enhances anti-tumor effect of doxorubicin both in vitro and in vivo.
  199. Proanthocyanidin from grape seeds potentiates anti-tumor activity of doxorubicin via immunomodulatory mechanism.
  200. (2005). Programmed cell death in the embryonic vertebrate limb.
  201. (2001). Pronounced inhibition by a natural anthocyanin, purple corn color, of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP)-associated colorectal carcinogenesis in male F344 rats pretreated with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine.
  202. (2000). Prospective study of dietary supplements, macronutrients, micronutrients, and risk of bladder cancer in US men.
  203. (2004). Protective effect of alpha-tocopherol in head and neck cancer radiationinduced mucositis: a double-blind randomized trial.
  204. (2007). Putting the 'super' into 'superfoods'. (Food standards agency).
  205. (1986). Quantitation of cisdiamminedichloroplatinum II (cisplatin)-DNA-intrastrand adducts in testicular and ovarian cancer patients receiving cisplatin chemotherapy.
  206. (2009). Radiation therapy in urinary cancer: state of the art and perspective.
  207. (2006). Radical Radiotherapy For Bladder Cancer: Retrospective Analysis of a Series of 459 Patients Treated in an Italian Institution.
  208. (2006). Radiosensitizers and bioreductive drugs. In: Radiobiology for the radiobiologist, 6th Edition. (Lippincott Williams
  209. (2006). Radiosensitizers in cervical cancer. Cisplatin and beyond.
  210. (2001). Radiotherapy for carcinoma of the bladder: a review.
  211. (2005). Randomized trial of antioxidant vitamins to prevent acute adverse effects of radiation therapy in head and neck cancer patients.
  212. (1983). Rapid colorimetric assay for cellular growth and survival: application to proliferation and cytotoxicity assays. J.Immunol.Methods,
  213. (1986). Reaction of DNA with chemically or enzymatically activated mitomycin C: isolation and structure of the major covalent adduct.
  214. (1990). Recognition between mitomycin C and specific DNA sequences for cross-link formation.
  215. (2002). Regulation of the cell cycle. In: The cancer handbook, Alison,M.ed.
  216. (1993). Relationship between patient response in ovarian and breast cancer and platinum drug-DNA adduct formation. Cancer Epidemiol.
  217. (2006). Reliable Comet assay measurements for detecting DNA damage induced by ionising radiation and chemicals.
  218. (2002). Repair of DNA interstrand crosslinks as a mechanism of clinical resistance to melphalan in multiple myeloma.
  219. (2001). Repair of DNA interstrand crosslinks: molecular mechanisms and clinical relevance.
  220. (2005). Repopulation of cancer cells during therapy: an important cause of treatment failure.
  221. (1986). Results of surgery following radical radiotherapy for invasive bladder cancer.
  222. (2010). Resveratrol induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest of human T24 bladder cancer cells in vitro and inhibits tumor growth in vivo.
  223. (2010). Resveratrol modulates drug- and carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes in a healthy volunteer study.
  224. (2004). Role of PPARgamma and EGFR signalling in the urothelial terminal differentiation programme.
  225. (2001). Sensitive determination of cell number using the CyQUANT cell proliferation assay. J.Immunol.Methods,
  226. (1995). Sequential reduction of mitochondrial transmembrane potential and generation of reactive oxygen species in early programmed cell death.
  227. (2000). Single cell gel/comet assay: guidelines for in vitro and in vivo genetic toxicology testing.
  228. (1995). Sizing highly fragmented DNA in individual apoptotic cells using the comet assay and a DNA crosslinking agent.
  229. (2006). Stability and biotransformation of various dietary anthocyanins in vitro.
  230. (2005). Study of anticancer activities of muscadine grape phenolics in vitro.
  231. (2007). Sulforaphane retards the growth of human PC-3 xenografts and inhibits HDAC activity in human subjects.
  232. (2005). Superficial bladder cancer. In: Urologic oncology,
  233. (2009). Suppression of the kinase activity of receptor tyrosine kinases by anthocyanin-rich mixtures extracted from bilberries and grapes.
  234. (1993). Suramin in combination with mitomycin C in hormone-resistant prostate cancer. A phase II clinical study.
  235. (2004). Synergistic anti-cancer effects of grape seed extract and conventional cytotoxic agent doxorubicin against human breast carcinoma cells.
  236. (2010). Synergistic effect between curcumin (diferuloylmethane) and radiation on clonogenic cell death independent of p53 in prostate cancer cells.
  237. (2008). Synergistic growth inhibitory effects of Phyllanthus emblica and Terminalia bellerica extracts with conventional cytotoxic agents: doxorubicin and cisplatin against human hepatocellular carcinoma and lung cancer cells.
  238. (2002). Synergistic inhibitory effects of genistein and tamoxifen on human dysplastic and malignant epithelial breast cells in vitro.
  239. Tetrazolium-based assays for cellular viability: a critical examination of selected parameters affecting formazan production.
  240. (1994). The alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene lung cancer prevention study: design, methods, participant characteristics, and compliance.
  241. (2001). The anthocyanidins cyanidin and delphinidin are potent inhibitors of the epidermal growth-factor receptor.
  242. (2003). The antioxidant conundrum in cancer.
  243. (2007). The bioavailability and absorption of anthocyanins: towards a better understanding.
  244. (1993). The cell cycle: an introduction.
  245. (2008). The chemopreventive agent curcumin is a potent radiosensitizer of human cervical tumor cells via increased reactive oxygen species production and overactivation of the mitogenactivated protein kinase pathway.
  246. (2004). The comet assay for DNA damage and repair: principles, applications, and limitations.
  247. (1997). The comet assay: what can it really tell us?
  248. (2007). The concurrent chemoradiation paradigm--general principles.
  249. (2005). The economic consequences of prostate and bladder cancer in the UK.
  250. (2003). The Fanconi anaemia/BRCA pathway.
  251. (1989). The fate of G3pT1 bladder cancer.
  252. (1976). The flavonoids. A class of semi-essential food components: their role in human nutrition.
  253. The hallmarks of cancer, revisited [abstract]. In:
  254. (2003). The health economics of bladder cancer: a comprehensive review of the published literature.
  255. (2008). The impact of chemoprevention on treatment regimes for non muscle invasive bladder cancer. Poster at the BAUS Section of Academic Urology Annual Scientific Meeting,
  256. (2008). The impact of chemoprevention on treatment regimes for non muscle invasive bladder cancer. Poster at the NCRI Cancer Conference, International Convention Centre,
  257. (2008). The impact of chemoprevention on treatment regimes for non muscle invasive bladder cancer. Poster at the UKEMs/NordEMS/MEG/IGG Joint Conference,
  258. (2003). The interacting pathways for prevention and repair of oxidative DNA damage.
  259. (2004). The levels of glutathione peroxidase, vitamin A, E, C and lipid peroxidation in patients with transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder.
  260. (1988). The modifying effect of beta-carotene on radiation and chemotherapy induced oral mucositis.
  261. (1993). The single cell gel electrophoresis assay (comet assay): a European review.
  262. (2007). The Treatment of Non–Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer with Intravesical Chemotherapy and Immunotherapy.
  263. (1994). The use of chemotherapy in the treatment of advanced gastric and pancreas cancer.
  264. (1993). The use of mitomycin in esophageal cancer.
  265. (2003). Therapeutic approaches to bladder cancer: identifying targets and mechanisms.
  266. (1986). Tissue culture model of transitional cell carcinoma: characterization of twenty-two human urothelial cell lines.
  267. (1997). Treatment of superficial bladder cancer with intravesical chemotherapy.
  268. (1982). Treatment of T3 bladder cancer: controlled trial of pre-operative radiotherapy and radical cystectomy versus radical radiotherapy.
  269. (2008). Urinary excretion of strawberry anthocyanins is dose dependent for physiological oral doses of fresh fruit.
  270. (2002). Use of bacille Calmette-Guerin in superficial bladder cancer.
  271. (2006). Using chemopreventive agents to enhance the efficacy of cancer therapy.
  272. (2010). Welcome trust sanger institute, Cancer cell line project [Homepage of Cancer genome project], [Online]. Available: http://www.sanger.ac.uk/genetics/CGP/CellLines
  273. (2009). World health organisation,
  274. (2008). You are what you eat - Fighting Cancer with Bilberries. The Impact of Chemoprevention on Treatment Regimes for Non Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer. Poster at the Festival of Postgraduate Research,

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.