This paper was published as Journal of Archaeological Science, 1982, 9 (3), pp. 287-298. It is available from http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/622854/description#description. DOI:Metadata only entryProblems of sampling carbonized plant material are discussed. Firstly, the problem of actually selecting a sample in the laboratory is considered, and some experiments which investigate various procedures are described. Secondly, the statistical aspects of determining optimal sample sizes are considered. Formulae are given for calculating optimal sample sizes and confidence intervals. Upper bounds, which are independent of the total population size, are provided for the sample size required to achieve any desired accuracy
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