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Gapless Hamiltonians for the Toric Code Using the Projected Entangled Pair State Formalism

By Carlos Fernández González, Norbert Schuch, Michael M. Wolf, J.I. Cirac and David Pérez García


We study Hamiltonians which have Kitaev's toric code as a ground state, and show how to construct a Hamiltonian which shares the ground space of the toric code, but which has gapless excitations with a continuous spectrum in the thermodynamic limit. Our construction is based on the framework of projected entangled pair states, and can be applied to a large class of two-dimensional systems to obtain gapless "uncle Hamiltonians.

Topics: Matemáticas
Publisher: American Physical Society
Year: 2012
DOI identifier: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.109.26040
OAI identifier:
Provided by: EPrints Complutense

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